Inter-hemispheric Intrinsic Connectivity as a Neuromarker for the Diagnosis of Boys with Tourette Syndrome
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Tourette syndrome (TS) is associated with gross morphological changes in the corpus callosum, suggesting deficits in inter-hemispheric coordination. The present study sought to identify changes in inter-hemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity in boys with “pure” TS as well as their potential value for clinical diagnosis. TS boys without comorbidity (pure TS, n = 24) were selected from a large dataset and compared to age- and education-matched controls (n = 32). Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between bilateral homotopic voxels was computed and compared between groups. Abnormal iFC was found in the bilateral prefronto-striatum-midbrain networks as well as bilateral sensorimotor and temporal cortices. The iFC between the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was negatively correlated with symptom severity. Anatomical connectivity strengths between functionally abnormal regions were estimated by diffusion probabilistic tractography, but no significant between-group difference was found. To test the clinical applicability of these neuroimaging findings, multivariate pattern analysis was used to develop a classification model in half of the total sample. The classification model exhibited excellent classification power for discriminating TS patients from controls in the other half samples. In summary, our findings emphasize the role of inter-hemispheric communication deficits in the pathophysiology of TS and suggest that iFC is a potential quantitative neuromarker for clinical diagnosis.
KeywordsResting state Functional MRI Tourette syndrome Tractography Classification
This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 81471653 for W. L., Grant no. 81401400 to G. J. J.), the Doctoral Foundation of Anhui Medical University (XJ201532 to G. J. J.), the Youth Top-notch Talent Support Program of Anhui Medical University (to G. J. J.), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant no. 2013M532229 to W. L.), and the Public Welfare Technology Project of Science Technology Department of Zhejiang Province (Grant no. 2014C33271 to J. H. F.).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
After a complete description of the study, informed consent was obtained from all parents according to the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Local Medical Ethics Committee of the Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, China.
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