Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 2539–2546 | Cite as

CT Permeability Imaging Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intra-arterial Thrombolytic Therapy

  • Nan Liu
  • Hui Chen
  • Bing Wu
  • Ying Li
  • Max Wintermark
  • Alan Jackson
  • Jun Hu
  • Yongwei Zhang
  • Zihua Su
  • Guangming ZhuEmail author
  • Weiwei ZhangEmail author


In this study, we determined whether a prediction of final infarct volume (FIV) and clinical outcomes in patients with an acute stroke is improved by using a contrast transfer coefficient (K trans) as a biomarker for blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Here, consecutive patients admitted with signs and symptoms suggesting acute hemispheric stroke were included in this study. Ninety-eight participants with intra-arterial therapy were assessed (46 female). Definition of predicted FIV was performed using conventional perfusion CT (PCT-PIV) parameters alone and in combination with K trans (K trans-PIV). Multiple logistic regression analyses and linear regression modeling were conducted to determine independent predictors of the 90-day modified Rankin score (mRS) and FIV, respectively. We found that patients with favorable outcomes were younger and had lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, smaller PCT-PIV, K trans-PIV, and smaller FIV (P < 0.001). K trans-PIV showed good correlation with FIV (P < 00.001, R 2 = 0.6997). In the regression analyses, K trans-PIV was the best predictor of clinical outcomes (P = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) = 1.960) and also the best predictor for FIV (F = 75.590, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, combining PCT and K trans maps derived from first-pass PCT can identify at-risk cerebral ischemic tissue more precisely than perfusion parameters alone. This provides improved accuracy in predicting FIV and clinical outcomes.


Permeability Perfusion Benign oligemia Blood–brain barrier dysfunction 



We would like to thank Statistical Elite Studios [] for helping with statistical analyses. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant No. 81371286 and No. 81501024), Clinical Innovation Foundation of Southwest Hospital (Grant No. SWH2013LC20), Innovation and Development Foundation of Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA (Grant No. 2015-LC-01), and Clinical Innovation Foundation of Southwest Hospital (Grant No. SWH2013LC20).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval (No. 2013008) was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee at the Ethics Committee of Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA. Patients enrolled in this study signed written informed consent. All procedures were subjected to the Declaration of Helsinki.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nan Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hui Chen
    • 2
  • Bing Wu
    • 3
  • Ying Li
    • 2
  • Max Wintermark
    • 4
  • Alan Jackson
    • 5
  • Jun Hu
    • 6
  • Yongwei Zhang
    • 7
  • Zihua Su
    • 8
  • Guangming Zhu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Weiwei Zhang
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Third Military Medical UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyMilitary General Hospital of Beijing PLABeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyMilitary General Hospital of Beijing PLABeijingChina
  4. 4.Neuroradiology Section, Department of RadiologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  5. 5.Wolfson Molecular Imaging CentreUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  6. 6.Department of Neurology, Southwest HospitalThird Military Medical UniversityChongqingChina
  7. 7.Department of Neurology, Changhai HospitalSecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  8. 8.GE HealthcareBeijingChina

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