Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 943–953 | Cite as

The Effects of Co-transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and Schwann Cells on Local Inflammation Environment in the Contused Spinal Cord of Rats

  • Jieyuan Zhang
  • Huijun Chen
  • Zhaoxia Duan
  • Kuijun Chen
  • Zeng Liu
  • Lu Zhang
  • Dongdong Yao
  • Bingcang Li


Inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) is important in regulation of the repair process. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells (SCs) are important donor cells for repairing SCI in different animal models. However, synergistic or complementary effects of co-transplantation of both cells for this purpose have not been extensively investigated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of co-transplantation of OECs and SCs on expression of pro- or anti-inflammatory factor and polarization of macrophages in the injured spinal cord of rats. Mixed cell suspensions containing OECs and SCs were transplanted into the injured site at 7 days after contusion at the vertebral T10 level. Compared with the DMEM, SC, or OEC group, the co-transplantation group had a more extensive distribution of the grafted cells and significantly reduced number of astrocytes, microglia/macrophage infiltration, and expression of chemokines (CCL2 and CCL3) at the injured site. The co-transplantation group also significantly increased arginase+/CD206+ macrophages (IL-4) and decreased iNOS+/CD16/32+ macrophages (IFN-γ), which was followed by higher IL-10 and IL-13 and lower IL-6 and TNF-α in their expression levels, a smaller cystic cavity area, and improved motor functions. These results indicate that OEC and SC co-transplantation could promote the shift of the macrophage phenotype from M(IFN-γ) to M(IL-4), reduce inflammatory cell infiltration in the injured site, and regulate inflammatory factors and chemokine expression, which provide a better immune environment for SCI repair.


Olfactory ensheathing cells Schwann cells Spinal cord injury Inflammatory response Macrophage phenotypes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jieyuan Zhang
    • 1
  • Huijun Chen
    • 1
  • Zhaoxia Duan
    • 1
  • Kuijun Chen
    • 1
  • Zeng Liu
    • 1
  • Lu Zhang
    • 1
  • Dongdong Yao
    • 1
  • Bingcang Li
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping HospitalThird Military Medical UniversityChongqingChina

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