Activation of AKT1/GSK-3β/β-Catenin–TRIM11/Survivin Pathway by Novel GSK-3β Inhibitor Promotes Neuron Cell Survival: Study in Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells in OGD Model
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The objective of this study is to elucidate the effect of a new glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor in RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells in oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. The pathway involved in GSK-3β signaling during OGD was measured to elucidate the mechanism of action. The differentiation of SH-SY5Y into mature neuronal cells was done with retinoic acid. During differentiation, upregulation of the growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), neurogenin1 (NGN1), neuronal differentiation 2 (NeuroD2), and tripartite motif containing 11 (TRIM11) genes were observed. Twelve hours of optimal OGD exposure resulted in the alteration of GSK-3β functions of the neuron cells. Of the five molecules selected for this study, molecule G3 showed better effect in the initial phase of the study. Hence, G3 (0.5, 1, and 5 μM) was selected for further study in the OGD model. The standard GSK-3β inhibitor, AR-A014418 (1 μM), was used for comparison. Molecules were pretreated (30 min) and cotreated during OGD exposure. GSK-3β inhibitors showed antiapoptotic activity as evidenced by reduced caspase-3 enzyme activity and increased survivin transcription, as well as improved membrane integrity, evidenced by LDH assay. The inhibitor molecules also up-regulated survival AKT1/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway and stabilized β-catenin. Inhibition of GSK-3β maintained neuronal survival by upregulating GAP43, Ngn1, and NeuroD2 gene transcription. Further GSK-3β inhibition reduced the TRIM11 gene transcription. In conclusion, both inhibitors have been found to control apoptosis and maintain neuronal functioning and this effect might have been mediated through AKT1/GSK-3β/β-catenin–TRIM11/survivin pathway.
KeywordsGlycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) β-Catenin Apoptosis Neuroprotection Ischemia Purine
This project was funded by the Medicine Division, Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi, India (reference no. BT/PR14062/MED/30/357/2010). The author would like to thank Dr. Sivaram Hariharan for his contribution in correcting the grammar of this manuscript.
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Conflict of Interest
No conflict of interest
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