Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 53, Issue 9, pp 6144–6154 | Cite as

Dietary Patterns and Risk of Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

  • Lei Cao
  • Lan TanEmail author
  • Hui-Fu Wang
  • Teng Jiang
  • Xi-Chen Zhu
  • Huan Lu
  • Meng-Shan Tan
  • Jin-Tai YuEmail author


Dietary patterns and some dietary components have been linked with dementia. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of available studies to determine whether there is an association between diet and risk of dementia. We included eligible articles and estimated risk ratio (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). Finally, there were 43 trials that met the inclusion standard. Some food intake was related with decrease of dementia, such as unsaturated fatty acids (RR: 0.84, 95 % CI: [0.74–0.95], P = 0.006), antioxidants (RR: 0.87, 95 % CI: [0.77–0.98], P = 0.026), vitamin B (RR: 0.72, 95 % CI: [0.54–0.96], P = 0.026), and the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) (RR: 0.69, 95 % CI: [0.57–0.84], P < 0.001). Some material intakes were related with increase of dementia, such as aluminum (RR: 2.24, 95 % CI: [1.49–3.37], P < 0.001), smoking (RR: 1.43, 95 % CI: [1.15–1.77], P = 0.001), and low levels of vitamin D (RR: 1.52, 95 % CI: [1.17–1.98], P = 0.002). The effect of some materials needs further investigation, such as fish (RR: 0.79, 95 % CI: [0.59–1.06], P = 0.113), vegetables and fruits (RR: 0.46, 95 % CI: [0.16–1.32], P = 0.149), and alcohol (RR: 0.74, 95 % CI: [0.55- 1.01], P = 0.056). Thus, the MeDi and higher consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and B vitamins decrease the risk of dementia while smoking and higher consumption of aluminum increase the risk of dementia. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with cognitive decline. The effect of fish, vegetables, fruits, and alcohol needs further investigation. The findings will be of great significance to guide people to prevent dementia.


Alzheimer’s disease Dementia Dietary patterns Diet The Mediterranean diet Meta-analysis 



This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81471309, 81371406, 81171209), the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Medical Academic Professional Program, Qingdao Key Health Discipline Development Fund, and Qingdao Outstanding Health Professional Development Fund.

Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

12035_2015_9516_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (625 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 624 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal HospitalNanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of MedicineQingdao UniversityQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, Nanjing First HospitalNanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina
  4. 4.Memory and Aging Center, Department of NeurologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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