Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 1572–1579

Hemorrhagic Transformation after Tissue Plasminogen Activator Reperfusion Therapy for Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms, Models, and Biomarkers


DOI: 10.1007/s12035-014-8952-x

Cite this article as:
Wang, W., Li, M., Chen, Q. et al. Mol Neurobiol (2015) 52: 1572. doi:10.1007/s12035-014-8952-x


Intracerebral hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is well recognized as a common cause of hemorrhage in patients with ischemic stroke. HT after acute ischemic stroke contributes to early mortality and adversely affects functional recovery. The risk of HT is especially high when patients receive thrombolytic reperfusion therapy with tissue plasminogen activator, the only available treatment for ischemic stroke. Although many important publications address preclinical models of ischemic stroke, there are no current recommendations regarding the conduct of research aimed at understanding the mechanisms and prediction of HT. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanisms for HT after ischemic stroke, provide an overview of the models commonly used for the study of HT, and discuss biomarkers that might be used for the early detection of this challenging clinical problem.


Blood-brain barrier Hemorrhagic transformation Ischemic stroke Tissue plasminogen activator 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryRenmin Hospital of Wuhan UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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