Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 931–944 | Cite as

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta (GSK3β) at the Tip of Neuronal Development and Regeneration



Gaining a basic understanding of the inhibitory molecules and the intracellular signaling involved in axon development and repulsion after neural lesions is of clear biomedical interest. In recent years, numerous studies have described new molecules and intracellular mechanisms that impair axonal outgrowth after injury. In this scenario, the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) in the axonal responses that occur after central nervous system (CNS) lesions began to be elucidated. GSK3β function in the nervous tissue is associated with neural development, neuron polarization, and, more recently, neurodegeneration. In fact, GSK3β has been considered as a putative therapeutic target for promoting functional recovery in injured or degenerative CNS. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the role of GSK3β during neuronal development and regeneration. In particular, we discuss GSK3β activity levels and their possible impact on cytoskeleton dynamics during both processes.


Neuritogenesis Axonal injury Neurite outgrowth inhibition Microtubule-associated protein Actin cytoskeleton 



Adenomatous polyposis coli


Brain-derived neurothrophic factor


Cyclin-dependent kinase 5


Cerebellar granule neuron


Cytoplasmic linker proteins (CLIP-associate protein)


Collapsing response mediator protein


Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan


Corticospinal tract


Dorsal root ganglion




Epidermal growth factor


Fibroblast growth factor




Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta


Heparan sulfate


Integrin-linked kinase


Keratan sulfate


Myelin-associated inhibitors


Myelin-associated glycoprotein


Microtubule-associated proteins


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Microtubule organization center


Nogo receptor 1


Neural growth factor








Oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein


Paired immunoglobuline-like receptor B


Phosphoinositide 3-kinase


Protein kinase A




Phosphatase and tensin homolog


Protein tyrosine phosphatase


Protein phosphatase 3


Target of rapamycin


Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor


Zipper sterile-motif kinase



The authors thank V. Gil and S. Nocentini for critical reading of the manuscript and Tom Yohannan for linguistic advice. This research was supported by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission, grant agreement 222887, FP7-PRIORITY, and DEMTEST (Joint Programming of Neurodegenerative Diseases), the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (BFU2012-32617), the Generalitat de Catalunya (SGR2009-366), La Caixa Obra Social Foundation (LCOSF), and the Instituto Salud Carlos III (PI11/03028). OS was supported by MICINN, IBEC (Strategic Research Initiative program founded by LCOSF) and ISCIII (Ciberned).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular and Cellular Neurobiotechnology, Institute of Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Diagonal 643University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (Ciberned)BarcelonaSpain

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