Non-coding RNAs in Alzheimer's Disease
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder and the most common dementia among the elderly. Accumulating research indicates that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are increasingly being implicated in AD. MiRNAs are conserved small ncRNAs that control gene expression post-transcriptionally while lncRNAs function in many ways. Recent profiling research in human or mouse models suggests that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in AD, and these have been implicated in the regulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, tau, inflammation, cell death, and other aspects which are the main pathomechanisms of AD. In addition, regulation of miRNAs varies in blood, and cerebral spinal fluid may indicate alterations in AD. Together with brain-specific miRNAs, these miRNAs could be potential AD biomarkers. All the above may provide the basis for new approaches for AD. Here, we review current findings regarding ncRNA research in human and mouse models to provide a strong basis for future study aiming at promising contributions of ncRNA in AD.