Structural, morphological and dielectric traits of \(\hbox {Zr}_{1-x}\hbox {Ca}_{{x}}\hbox {TiO}_{{4}}\) (\(x=0\), 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.2) ceramics

  • Naadia AkhtarEmail author
  • Hafiz Muhammad Rafique
  • Shahid Atiq
  • Sana Aslam
  • Aamir Razaq
  • Murtaza Saleem


The influence of Ca doping on structural, morphological and dielectric characteristics of \(\hbox {Zr}_{1-x}\hbox {Ca}_{{x}}\hbox {TiO}_{{4}}\) (\(x=0\), 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.2) ceramics has been planned in this effort. Un-doped and Ca-doped \(\hbox {ZrTiO}_{{4}}\) (ZT) have been synthesized through a sol–gel auto-combustion approach. The orthorhombic phase of ZT and Ca-doped ZT is confirmed through X-ray diffraction patterns. The variation in structural morphology and particle size due to Ca incorporation in ZT has further been revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The investigation showed that the size of the particle gradually reduced from 0.5 to \(0.125~\upmu \hbox {m}\) with the increase of Ca content. It was confirmed from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that organic content was not found in the prepared samples. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor and tangent loss reduce with the increase in frequency and increase in Ca content. These dielectric parameters show independency at a higher frequency. The modulus plots confirmed that the capacitive parts were relatively independent of the frequency, whereas ac conductivity exhibited frequency dependent behaviour i.e., an increase with Ca concentration and with increasing frequency. The impedance plots revealed the resistance dominance due to the grain boundary effect.


XRD dielectric properties EDS FE-SEM FTIR sol–gel synthesis 


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naadia Akhtar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hafiz Muhammad Rafique
    • 1
  • Shahid Atiq
    • 2
  • Sana Aslam
    • 1
  • Aamir Razaq
    • 3
  • Murtaza Saleem
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences (SPS)University of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in Solid State PhysicsUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Department of Physics, School of Science and Engineering (SSE)Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS)LahorePakistan

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