Dextran from Leuconostoc mesenteroides-doped ammonium salt-based green polymer electrolyte

  • M H Hamsan
  • M F Shukur
  • S B Aziz
  • M F Z KadirEmail author


Biopolymer electrolytes based on dextran from Leuconostoc mesenteroides doped with ammonium nitrate \((\hbox {NH}_{4}\hbox {NO}_{3})\) are synthesized via a solution cast method. Fourier transform infrared analysis is used to determine the complexation between cation from the salt with functional groups of dextran. The ionic conductivity of undoped dextran film at room temperature is identified as \((8.24\,\pm \,0.31)\times 10^{-11}\hbox { S }\hbox {cm}^{-1}\). A conductivity of \((3.00\,\pm \,1.60)\times 10^{-5}\hbox { S }\hbox {cm}^{-1}\) is achieved with the inclusion of 20 wt% \(\hbox {NH}_{4}\hbox {NO}_{3}\) to the pure dextran film. The conductivity at a high temperature of the electrolyte obeys Arrhenius theory. Field emission scanning electron microscopy results show that the highest conducting sample has a porous surface. Results from the dielectric study show a non-Debye characteristic.


Biopolymer dextran ammonium nitrate dielectric ionic conductivity 



The authors thank the University of Malaya for the Grants FP009-2015A, RP010B-13AFR and BKS005-2018 awarded.


  1. 1.
    Chai M N and Isa M I N 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shukur M F, Ithnin R and Kadir M F Z 2014 Ionics 7 977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nur U T and Nurul H I 2014 J. Membr. Sci. 468 149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ramlli M A and Isa M I N 2016 J. Phys. Chem. B 120 11567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhu Y S, Xiao S Y, Li M X, Chang Z, Wang F X, Gao J et al 2015 J. Power Sources 288 368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shanti N, Azlin S, Ahmada A H, Ramesh S, Ramesh K and Othmana N 2015 J. Teknologi 75 1Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abu Bakar N Y, Muhamaruesa N H, Bashirah Aniskari N A and Mohd Isa M I N 2015 Am. J. Appl. Sci. 12 40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mohammad H K, Ramesh S and Ramesh K 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Song A, Huang Y, Zhong X, Cao H, Liu B, Lin Y et al 2017 Electrochim. Acta 245 981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gong S-D, Huang Y, Cao H-J, Lin Y-H, Li Y, Tang S-H et al 2016 J. Power Sources 307 624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamsan M H, Shukur M F and Kadir M F Z 2017 Ionics 23 1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maria D, Madalina A, Marian V, Catalin V and Viorica M 2012 Solid State Phenom. 188 102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Telegeev G, Kutsevol N, Chumachenko V, Naumenko A, Telegeeva P, Filipchenko S et al 2017 Int. J. Polym. Sci. 2017 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Osman Z, Mohd Ghazali M I, Othman L and Md Isa K B 2012 Results in Phys. 2 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sudhakar Y N and Selvakumar M 2012 Electrochim. Acta 78 398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kang J, Li W, Wang X, Lin Y, Li X, Xiao X et al 2004 J. Appl. Electrochem34 301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sikkanthar S, Karthikeyann S, Selvasekarapandian S, Pandi D V, Nithya S et al 2014 J. Solid State Electrochem. 4 987Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mohanasrinivasan V, Ghosa T, Thaslim J B, Zeba H J, Selvarajan E, Suganthi V et al 2014 Res. J. Pharm. Tech. 7 8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shukur M F 2015 PhD Thesis (Malaysia, University of Malaya)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kadir M F Z, Aspanut Z, Majid S R and Arof A K 2011 Spectrochim. Acta Part A 78 1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Azmeera V, Adhikary P and Krishnamoorthi S 2012 Int. J. Carbohydr. Chem. 2012 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hafiza M N and Isa M I N 2017 Carbohydr. Polym165 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Monisha S, Mathavan T, Selvasekarapandian S, Benial A, Aristatil G, Mani N et al 2017 Carbohydr. Polym. 157 38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kadir M F Z, Salleh N S, Hamsan M H, Aspanut N A and Shukur M F 2018 Ionics 24 1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Misenan M S M, Isa M I N and Khiar A S A 2018 Mater. Res. Express 2053 1Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hamsan M H, Shukur M F and Kadir M F Z 2017 Ionics 23 3429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rasali N M J and Samsudin A S 2018 Ionics 24 1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shuhaimi N E A, Majid S R and Arof A K 2009 Mater. Res. Innovations 13 239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khiar A S and Arof A K 2010 Ionics 16 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Selvasekarapandian S, Hema M, Kawamura J, Kamishima O and Baskaran R 2010 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79 163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shahenoor Basha S K, Sunita Sundari G, Vijay Kumar K and Rao M C 2017 J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 27 455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Das S and Ghosh A 2015 AIP Adv. 5 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chandra A 2013 Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 51 788Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deraman S K, Subban R H Y and Mohamed N S 2017 J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci. 7 152Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pradhan D K, Choudhary R N P and Samantaray B K 2009 Mater. Chem. Phys. 115 557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gurusiddappa J, Madhuri W, Suvarna R P and Dasan K P 2016 Indian J. Adv. Chem. Sci4 14Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ramesh S and Arof A K 2001 Mater. Sci. Eng. B 85 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang W and Alexandridis P 2016 Polymer 8 387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rozali M L H and Isa M I N 2014 Int. J. Mater. Sci. 4 59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kobayashi T, Noguchi Y and Miyayama M 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 01290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Aziz S B, Abidin Z H Z and Arof A K 2010 XPRESS Polym. Lett. 4 300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cascone M G, Polacco G, Lazzeri L and Barbani N 1997 J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 66 2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ahmad A L, Farooqui U R and Hamid N A 2018 Electrochim. Acta 283 842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bhad S N and Sangawar V S 2013 Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 4 1719Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Xi J, Qiu X, Li J, Tang X, Zhu W and Chen L 2006 J. Power Sources 157 501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yusof Y M, Shukur M F, Illias H A and Kadir M F Z 2014 Phys. Scr. 89 035701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kento S, Hiroki M and Atsumi M 2017 J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 127 851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kadir M F Z and Hamsan M H 2018 Ionics 24 2379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Noor S A M, Ahmad A, Rahman M Y A and Talib I A 2010 Nat. Sci. 2 190Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Amran N N A, Manan N S A and Kadir M F Z 2016 Ionics 22 1647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Danielle M, Yukyung J, Alexandra L H, Michael A W, Geoffrey W C and Nitash B 2016 Solid State Ion. 289 118CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Graduate StudiesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Fundamental and Applied Sciences DepartmentUniversiti Teknologi PETRONASSeri IskandarMalaysia
  3. 3.Advanced Polymeric Materials Research Lab, Department of Physics, College of ScienceUniversity of SulaimaniSulaimaniIraq
  4. 4.Komar Research Center (KRC)Komar University of Science and TechnologySulaimaniIraq
  5. 5.Centre for Foundation Studies in ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations