Impact of sulphurization environment on formation of \(\hbox {Cu}_{2}\hbox {ZnSnS}_{4}\) films using electron beam evaporated stacked metallic precursors

  • P K Kannan
  • Sushmita Chaudhari
  • Suhash R DeyEmail author


The superiority of copper zinc tin sulphide (\(\hbox {Cu}_{2}\hbox {ZnSnS}_{4}\); CZTS) over the existing absorber layer materials is inevitable owing to its cheap, non-toxic and earth abundant constituents with high absorption coefficient value. In the present study, CZTS films are prepared by sulphurizing electron beam deposited precursors of glass/Cu/Zn/Sn/Cu and glass/Cu/Sn/Zn/Cu stacking sequences in two different environments i.e., elemental S powder and 5% \(\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {S}+\hbox {N}_{2}\) gas at different ramping rates. The effect of sulphurization environment and sulphurization ramping rate on the formation of CZTS is investigated using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and composition of the films are analysed respectively using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is observed that films prepared in elemental S powder at a low ramping rate exhibit better crystallinity with less impurity phases. The presence of ZnS is observed in all the films, while the presence of SnS is observed in films prepared with \(\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {S}\) gas alone, thus concluding that sulphurization in the presence of elemental S powder at a low ramping rate is highly favourable for CZTS film formation. CZTS films with minor ZnS impurity with a bandgap of 1.48 eV is successfully fabricated by using a glass/Cu/Zn/Sn/Cu precursor stack.


Electron beam evaporation ramping rate CZTS 


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P K Kannan
    • 1
  • Sushmita Chaudhari
    • 1
  • Suhash R Dey
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology HyderabadKandi, SangareddyIndia

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