Bulletin of Materials Science

, 41:155 | Cite as

Distribution of relaxation times investigation of \(\hbox {Co}^{3+}\) doping lithium-rich cathode material \(\hbox {Li}[\hbox {Li}_{0.2} \hbox {Ni}_{0.1} \hbox {Mn}_{0.5} \hbox {Co}_{0.2}]\hbox {O}_{2}\)

  • Wanwan Li
  • Yue Li
  • Xiaolin Yao
  • Minhua Fang
  • Miao ShuiEmail author
  • Jie Shu
  • Yuanlong Ren


The element \(\hbox {Co}^{3+}\) was introduced into lithium-rich material \(0.5\hbox {Li}_{2}\hbox {MnO}_{3} \cdot 0.5 \hbox {LiNi}_{0.5}\hbox {Mn}_{0.5}\hbox {O}_{2}\) by a polyacrylamide-assisted sol–gel method to form \(\hbox {Li}[\hbox {Li}_{0.2} \hbox {Ni}_{0.1} \hbox {Mn}_{0.5} \hbox {Co}_{0.2}]\hbox {O}_{2}\) and better electro-chemical performances were observed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy spectra were measured on 11 specific open circuit voltage levels on the initial charge profile. Then they were converted to the distribution of relaxation times (DRTs) g(\(\tau \)) by self-consistent Tikhonov regularization method. The obtained DRTs offered a higher resolution in the frequency domain and provided the number and the physical origins of loss processes clearly. Through the analysis of DRTs, the rapid augmentation of resistance to electronic conduction and charge transfer within the voltage range 4.46–4.7 V where the removal of \(\hbox {Li}_{2}\hbox {O}\) from \(\hbox {Li}_{2} \hbox {MnO}_{3}\) component took place was the most remarkable phenomenon and the \(\hbox {Co}^{3+}\) doping greatly reduced the resistance to electronic conduction Re. This gave us more evidence about the complicated ‘structurally integrated’ composite character of the material.


Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy DRTs lithium rich cathode material Tikhonov regularization 



We gratefully acknowledge the support for this work from 973 Fundamental research program from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (grant no. 2010CB635116), NSFC project 21173190, National Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (grant no. LY13B010003), Ningbo Science & Technology Bureau Project 2017A610023 and K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, The Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical EngineeringNingbo UniversityNingboPeople’s Republic of China

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