Synthesis of graphene using gamma radiations
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Considering the advantages of radiolytic synthesis such as the absence of toxic chemical as a reducing agent, uniform distribution of reducing agent and high purity of product, the synthesis of graphene (rGO) from graphene oxide (GO) by the gamma irradiation technique using a relatively low dose rate of 0.24 kGy h−1 has been described. Structural and physicochemical properties of GO and rGO were investigated with the help of various characterization techniques. The presence of peak at 271 nm in ultraviolet–visible spectrum, C = C aromatic stretching vibrations between 1450 and 1600 cm−1 in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum and significant decrease in photoluminescence peak intensity at 470 and 567 nm wavelengths represent the reduction of GO to graphene by gamma irradiation. The decrease in stacking height from 7.71 nm in GO to 3.52 nm in rGO as observed from the X-ray powder diffraction analysis further confirms the same. Raman spectra show significantly lower D to G band ratio for rGO compared with GO. Also, the cyclic voltammograms obtained using GO- and rGO-modified electrodes (working electrode) in standard redox system show enhanced peak intensities together with decrease in potential difference between oxidation and reduction peaks in case of graphene.
KeywordsGraphene oxide gamma radiations reduction graphene
We acknowledge financial supports provided by Department of Chemistry, University of Pune. CNQS, Department of Physics, University of Pune, for XRD, SEM, FTIR facilities, Prof Pavankumar, IISER, Pune, for Raman spectra and Prof Hedayatollah Ghourchian, University of Tehran, are gratefully appreciated for fruitful discussions.
- 43.Hun Huh S 2011 Physics and applications of graphene – experiments, Mikhailov S (ed) Thermal reduction of graphene oxide (InTech) ISBN: 978-953-307-217-3Google Scholar