Molecular Biotechnology

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 371–378

Effect of Biofilm Formation by Bacillus subtilis natto on Menaquinone-7 Biosynthesis

  • Aydin Berenjian
  • Natalie Li-Cheng Chan
  • Raja Mahanama
  • Andrea Talbot
  • Hubert Regtop
  • John Kavanagh
  • Fariba Dehghani


Bacillus subtilis natto is the key microorganism for the industrial production of menaquinone-7. The fermentation of this bacterium in static culture is associated with biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of biofilm formation on menaquinone-7 production to develop a suitable bio-reactor for the production of menaquinone-7. In the static culture, menaquinone-7 biosynthesis showed a linear correlation with biofilm formation (R2 = 0.67) and cell density (R2 = 0.7). The amount of biofilm, cell density and menaquinone-7 formation were a function of nutrient and processing conditions. Glycerol, soy peptone, and yeast extract mixture and 40 °C were found to be the optimum nutrients and temperature for accelerating both biofilm and menaquinone-7 biosynthesis in static culture. However, glucose, mixture of soy peptone and yeast extract and 45 °C were found to be the optima for cell density. As compared to the static culture, the biofilm formation was significantly inhibited when a shaken fermentation was used. However, shaking caused only a small decrease on menaquinone-7 production. These results demonstrate that the biofilm formation is not essential for menaquinone-7 biosynthesis. This study underlines the feasibility of using large scale stirred fermentation process for menaquinone-7 production.


Menaquinone-7 Biofilm Fermentation Bacillus subtilis natto 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aydin Berenjian
    • 1
  • Natalie Li-Cheng Chan
    • 1
  • Raja Mahanama
    • 1
  • Andrea Talbot
    • 2
  • Hubert Regtop
    • 2
  • John Kavanagh
    • 1
  • Fariba Dehghani
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Agricure Scientific OrganicsBraemarAustralia

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