Molecular Biotechnology

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 283–288 | Cite as

Genetic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Isolated from the One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) by Using Microarray DNA Technology

  • Taghi Zahraei Salehi
  • Alfreda Tonelli
  • Alberto Mazza
  • Hamid Staji
  • Pietro Badagliacca
  • Iradj Ashrafi Tamai
  • Reza Jamshidi
  • Josée Harel
  • Rossella Lelli
  • Luke Masson


From the Camelidae family members, several serotypes of Escherichia coli (E. coli) have recently been isolated from diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic faecal samples. To date Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains have never been typed in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). In the present study, two E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from sick dromedaries were investigated. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a custom E. coli virulence DNA microarray, composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting 264 virulence or related genes of known E. coli pathotypes. Both strains displayed positive hybridization signals for the Locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene probes (ler, eae, espA, espB, tir genes), two Shiga toxin probes (stx1 and stx2), the O157 O-antigen specific probe, various virulence plasmid (pO157) probes like katP in addition to other accessory virulence genes characterized in STEC.


Camelidae Camelus dromedarius Escherichia coli O157:H7 EHEC Microarray STEC 



We thank Dr. Armando Giovannini of Istituto G. Caporale, Epidemiology unit, for his suggestions.


  1. 1.
    Clermont, O., Bonacorsi, S., & Bingen, E. (2000). Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 4555–4558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaper, J. B., Nataro, J. P., & Mobley, H. L. (2004). Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2, 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Karpac, C. A., Li, X., Terrell, D. R., Kremer Hovinga, J. A., Lammle, B., Vesely, S. K., et al. (2008). Sporadic bloody diarrhoea-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-haemolytic uraemic syndrome: an adult and paediatric comparison. British Journal of Haematology, 141, 696–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Naylor, S. W., Gally, D. L., & Low, J. C. (2005). Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in veterinary medicine. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 295, 419–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karmali, M. A. (2004). Infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview. Molecular Biotechnology, 26, 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sheng, H., Lim, J. Y., Knecht, H. J., Li, J., & Hovde, C. J. (2006). Role of Escherichia coli O157:H7 virulence factors in colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa. Infection and Immunity, 74, 4685–4693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dunn, J. R., Keen, J. E., & Thompson, R. A. (2004). Prevalence of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in adult dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 224, 1151–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Salmanzadeh-Ahrabi, S., Habibi, E., Jaafari, F., & Zali, M. R. (2005). Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli diarrhoea in children in Tehran. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 25(1), 35–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jafari, F., Garcia-Gil, L. J., Salmanzadeh-Ahrabi, S., Shokrzadeh, L., Aslani, M. M., Pourhoseingholi, M. A., et al. (2009). Diagnosis and prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in children less than five years of age with acute diarrhea in Tehran children’s hospitals. Journal of Infection, 58(1), 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonyadian, M., Momtaz, H., Rahimi, E., Habibian, R., Yazdani, A., & Zamani, M. (2010). Identification and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from patients with diarrhea in Iran. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 132, 328–331.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aslami, M. M., & Bouzari, S. (2009). Characterization of virulence genes of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from two provinces of Iran. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 62(1), 16–19.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Badouei, M. A., Salehi, T. Z., Khorasgani, M. R., Tadjbakhsh, H., Brujeni, G. N., & Nadalian, M. G. (2010). Virulence gene profiles and intimin subtypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from healthy and diarrhoeic calves. Veterinary Record, 167(22), 858–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tahamtan, Y., Hayati, M., & Mehdi Namavari, M. (2010). Contamination of sheep carcasses with verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli during slaughtering. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 57(1–2), 25–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shuchismita Chatterjee Kashyap, S. K. (2005). Pathogenicity testing of Escherichia coli isolates of livestock and poultry. Veterinary Practitioner, 6(2), 105–108.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seleim, R. S., & El-Sebaey, W. A. F. (2004). Camel-calves diarrhoea instigated by Escherichia coli and detection of some virulence-associated markers. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza, 52, 153–163.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    El-Sayed, A., Ahmed, S., & Awad, W. (2008). Do camels (Camelus dromedarius) play an epidemiological role in the spread of Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection? Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40, 469–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moore, J. E., McCalmont, M., Jiru, Xu, Nation, G., Tinson, A. H., Crothers, L., et al. (2002). Prevalence of faecal pathogens in calves of racing camels (Camelus dromedaries). Tropical Animal Health and Production, 34, 283–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Featherstone, C. A., Foster, A. P., Chappell, S. A., Carson, T., & Pritchard, G. C. (2011). Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in camelids. Veterinary Record, 168, 194–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lim, J. Y., Hong, J. B., Sheng, H., Shringi, S., Kaul, R., Besser, T. E., et al. (2010). Phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains associated with the plasmid O157. Journal of Microbiology, 48, 347–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lim, J. Y., Yoon, J., & Hovde, C. J. (2010). A brief overview of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its plasmid O157. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20, 5–14.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wick, L. M., Qi, W., Lacher, D. W., & Whittam, T. S. (2005). Evolution of genomic content in the stepwise emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Bacteriology, 187, 1783–1791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang, Y., Laing, C., Steele, M., Ziebell, K., Johnson, R., Benson, A. K., Taboada, E., & Gannon V. P. (2007). Genome evolution in major Escherichia coli O157:H7 lineages. BMC Genomics, 8, 121.
  23. 23.
    Afset, J. E., Bruant, G., Brousseau, R., Harel, J., Anderssen, E., Bevanger, L., et al. (2006). Identification of virulence genes linked with diarrhea due to atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by DNA microarray analysis and PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44, 3703–3711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bruant, G., Maynard, C., Bekal, S., Gaucher, I., Masson, L., Brousseau, R., et al. (2006). Development and validation of an oligonucleotide microarray for detection of multiple virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Escherichia coli. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 3780–3784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hamelin, K., Bruant, G., El-Shaarawi, A., Hill, S., Edge, T. A., Bekal, S., et al. (2006). A virulence and antimicrobial resistance DNA microarray detects a high frequency of virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates from great lakes recreational waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 4200–4206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tonelli, A., Badagliacca, P., Bruant, G., Letizia, A., Di Provvido, A., Harel, J, & Scacchia, M. (2008). Genetic characterization of rabbit Escherichia coli strains with the use of microarray technology. In Proceedings 9th World Rabbit Congress, Verona, Italy, June 10–13, 2008. World Rabbit Science Association, Valencia, Spain, 1097–1101.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alonso, J. L., Soriano, A., Carbajo, O., Amoros, I., & Garelick, H. (1999). Comparison and recovery of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in water with a chromogenic medium incubated at 41 and 44.5 °C. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, 3746–3749.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lim, J. Y., La, H. J., Sheng, H., Forney, L. J., & Hovde, C. J. (2010). Influence of plasmid pO157 on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai biofilm formation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, 963–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Scheutz, F., Møller Nielsen, E., Frimodt-Møller, J., Boisen, N., Morabito, S., Tozzoli, R., Nataro, J.P, & Caprioli, A. (2011). Characteristics of the enteroaggregative Shiga toxin/verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain causing the outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, May to June 2011. Euro Surveillance, 16(24), 19889.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taghi Zahraei Salehi
    • 1
  • Alfreda Tonelli
    • 2
  • Alberto Mazza
    • 3
  • Hamid Staji
    • 4
  • Pietro Badagliacca
    • 2
  • Iradj Ashrafi Tamai
    • 1
  • Reza Jamshidi
    • 4
  • Josée Harel
    • 5
  • Rossella Lelli
    • 2
  • Luke Masson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Istituto “G. Caporale”, Campo BoarioTeramoItaly
  3. 3.Biotechnology Research InstituteNational Research Council of CanadaMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of SemnanSemnanIran
  5. 5.Groupe de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses du Porc, Faculté de Médecine VétérinaireUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations