Molecular Biotechnology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 165–177 | Cite as

In Silico Characterization of Proteins: UniProt, InterPro and Integr8

  • Nicola Jane MulderEmail author
  • Paul Kersey
  • Manuela Pruess
  • Rolf Apweiler


Nucleic acid sequences from genome sequencing projects are submitted as raw data, from which biologists attempt to elucidate the function of the predicted gene products. The protein sequences are stored in public databases, such as the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB), where curators try to add predicted and experimental functional information. Protein function prediction can be done using sequence similarity searches, but an alternative approach is to use protein signatures, which classify proteins into families and domains. The major protein signature databases are available through the integrated InterPro database, which provides a classification of UniProtKB sequences. As well as characterization of proteins through protein families, many researchers are interested in analyzing the complete set of proteins from a genome (i.e. the proteome), and there are databases and resources that provide non-redundant proteome sets and analyses of proteins from organisms with completely sequenced genomes. This article reviews the tools and resources available on the web for single and large-scale protein characterization and whole proteome analysis.


Bioinformatics Databases Protein sequences Protein signatures Annotation Proteomics 



UniProt is mainly supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant 1 U01 HG02712-01. Additional support comes from the European Commission’s grant 021902RII3, from the NIH grants 1R01HGO2273-01, HHSN266200400 061C, NCI-caBIGICR-10-10-01 and ITR-0205470, and the Swiss Federal Government. InterPro was funded by the award of grant number QLRI-CT-2000–00517 and in part by grant number QLRI-CT-2001000015 from the European Union under the RTD programme “Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources”. InterPro is a member database of the MRC-funded eFamily project. Genome Reviews and Integr8 have been funded or are funded, respectively, by the European Commission’s grants QLRICT-2001000015, and 021902RII3.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola Jane Mulder
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul Kersey
    • 1
  • Manuela Pruess
    • 1
  • Rolf Apweiler
    • 1
  1. 1.EMBL Outstation - European Bioinformatics InstituteHinxton, CambridgeUK

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