Medical Oncology

, 36:28 | Cite as

Factors that impact the outcomes in testicular germ cell tumors in low–middle-income countries

  • S. V. Saju
  • Venkatraman RadhakrishnanEmail author
  • Trivadi S. Ganesan
  • Manikandan Dhanushkodi
  • Anand Raja
  • Ganesarajah Selvaluxmy
  • Tenali Gnana Sagar
Original Paper


Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are one of the most common tumors in adolescents and young adults. There is paucity of data on GCT from low–middle-income countries (LMIC). The present study was conducted to assess the demographic features, clinical manifestations, pathology, and outcomes of GCT patients treated at our center. Patients with testicular GCT above the age of 18 years, treated at our center from 2001 to 2015 were included in the study. Data were extracted retrospectively from the case records. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method and the variables were compared using the log-rank test. The study included 421 patients among whom 128 (30%) had a histological diagnosis of seminoma and 293 (70%) had non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT). Metastatic disease at presentation was observed in 83/128 (65%) with seminoma and 254/293 (87%) with NSGCT. According to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) risk stratification for metastatic disease, good- and intermediate-risk seminoma were observed in 55/83 (66%) and 28/83 (34%) patients, respectively, and good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk NSGCT were observed in 82/254 (32%), 76/254 (30%), and 96/254 (38%) patients, respectively. The median follow-up was 32.3 months (range 0.03–200 months). The 3-year OS for the entire cohort was 80.3%. The 3-year OS for seminoma was 91.4%, and for NSGCT was 75.3%. Factors significantly associated with inferior EFS and OS on multivariate analysis included poor performance status, scrotal orchidectomy, carboplatin-based regimen, NSGCT histology, and treatment default. Patients with testicular GCT in India present in an advanced stage and higher IGCCCG risk compared to Western data. Factors unique to LMIC like treatment default, bulky disease, dose compromise, and scrotal orchidectomy have a negative impact on the outcome.


Testicular cancer Germ cell tumor Seminoma NSGCT IGCCCG risk 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent and ethical approval

The study is retrospective in nature and therefore ethics committee approval and patient consent are not required as per Cancer Institute ethics committee policy.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyCancer Institute (WIA)ChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Surgical OncologyCancer Institute (WIA)ChennaiIndia
  3. 3.RadiotherapyCancer Institute (WIA)ChennaiIndia

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