Antiangiogenics and immunotherapies in cervical cancer: an update and future’s view
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Despite availability of primary and secondary prevention measures, cervical cancer (CC) persists as one of the most common cancers among women around the world, and more than 70% of cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of CC, around 15–61% of patients develop a recurrence in lymph nodes or distant sites within the first 2 years of completing treatment and the prognosis for these patients remains poor. During the last decades, in an attempt to improve the outcome in these patients, novel agents as combination therapy that target known dysfunctional molecular pathways have been developed with the most attention to the inhibitors of the angiogenesis process. One therapeutic target is the vascular endothelial growth factor, which has been shown to play a key role in tumor angiogenesis, not only for growth of new tissue but also in tumor proliferation. Bevacizumab is recognized as a potent antiangiogenic agent in ovarian cancer but has also demonstrated encouraging antitumor activity in recurrent CC. Moreover, other antiangiogenic agents were recently under study including: sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, cediranib and nintedanib with interesting preliminary results. Moreover, over the last few years there has been increasing interest in cellular immunotherapy as a strategy to harness the immune system to fight tumors. This article focuses on recent discoveries about antiangiogenic agents and immunotherapies in the treatment of CC highlighting on future’s view.
KeywordsAntiangiogenic therapies Cervical cancer Bevacizumab Pazopanib Immunotherapy Vaccines
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was not necessary because the study does not involve human participants
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