Medical Oncology

, 34:42 | Cite as

Understanding venous malformations of the head and neck: a comprehensive insight

  • Giacomo CollettiEmail author
  • Anna Maria Ierardi
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. New Advances in Interventional Oncology: State of the Art


Venous malformations (VMs) are congenital vascular malformations. They are very often misnamed and thus incorrectly managed. The aim of the present paper is to provide the reader with the most updated literature available and to offer a detailed description of each single aspect of this disease. In detail, the paper discusses the epidemiology, the embryological origins and the physiopathology of VMs. Then, the clinical features of sporadic, inherited and syndromic VMs are discussed. The instrumental diagnosis is presented, and the role of US, CT, MRI and phlebography is pointed out. Differential diagnoses with other vascular malformations and tumors are described. The clinical session ends with the staging of VMs relying on MRI and rheological features. All aspects of treatment are described: conservative measures, medical treatment, sclerotherapy, laser and surgery are thoroughly discussed. A section is reserved to bony VMs. Their clinical aspects and the appropriate treatment are presented.


Venous malformation Vascular malformation Hemangioma Cavernous Angioma Sclerotherapy Sclerosant 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Author GC and AMI declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, San Paolo HospitalUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Interventional Radiology UnitUniversity of Milan, San Paolo HospitalMilanItaly

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