The purpose of our study is to report safety, technical success, effectiveness, local progression-free survival (LPFS) and overall survival of percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) to treat lung tumours unsuitable for surgery. Nineteen patients with thirty-one tumours (mean diameter 2.4 cm) underwent percutaneous MWA in 28 sessions. Microwave ablation was carried out using a 2450-MHz generator (Emprint/Covidien, Boulder, CO, USA). Procedures were performed under cone-beam CT (CBCT) and under fluoro-CT (one session) guidance. Safety, technical success, effectiveness, LPFS and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Safety was defined as the frequency of major and minor complications. The efficacy was evaluated on the basis of imaging characteristics, using RECIST criteria. CT follow-up was performed at 1, 3 and 6 months and yearly. LPFS was defined as the interval between MWA treatment and evidence of local recurrence, if there was any. OS was defined as the percentage of patients who were still alive. We registered one major complication (purulent hydro-pneumothorax). Minor complications were spontaneously resolved (pneumothorax and perilesional haemorrhagic effusion). Technical success was 100%. Residual disease was registered in two cases, one of whom was retreated. Complete ablation was obtained in the remaining cases (90.3%). During available follow-up (mean 9.6 months), 9/31 tumours demonstrated local recurrence. Five tumours were retreated, and none of them presented residual disease during follow-up (LPFS 22.6%). Overall survival was 93.8%. Percutaneous high-energy MWA is a safe, effective and confident technique to treat lung tumours not suitable for surgery.
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Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study formal consent is not required.
Conflict of interest
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