Cytokine and endocrine signaling in prostate cancer
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Prostate epithelial and stromal cells develop paracrine interactions, which may be responsible for the occurrence and progression of prostate pathologies. Strikingly, stromal cells exhibit pleiotropic effects on epithelial cell growth, ranging from stimulation to inhibition. Steroid hormone receptors are considered ligand-activated transcriptional factors. Moreover, it has been suggested that the human androgen receptor can also be activated in the absence of surrounding ligands such as growth factors and cytokines. Strong evidence suggests that cytokines may play an important role in ligand-independent activation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. In our view, one of the most striking finding in the prostate cancer development process is the relationship between carcinogenesis and secretion of cytokines.