Medical Oncology

, Volume 28, Supplement 1, pp 286–290 | Cite as

Hepatic artery chemoembolization for the treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: a long-term follow-up in 123 patients

  • Xiang Da Dong
  • Brian I. CarrEmail author
Original Paper


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal tract have a propensity for hepatic metastases. Surgical resection for hepatic metastases remains the gold standard for long-term survival, but many patients present with multifocal tumors, precluding surgery with increasing use of chemoembolization. However, there are few studies examining long-term survival factors. We reviewed our 15-year experience with chemoembolization in 123 patients with unresectable NET liver metastases, whose prognosis was evaluated upon baseline clinical factors. There were 64 males (53%) and 59 females (47%). Average age at presentation was 56 years (range: 14.3–85.5 years). Abdominal pain (44%) was the most common presenting symptom, followed by diarrhea (30%) and weight lost (22%). Patients underwent an average 7.3 cycles of chemoembolization (range 1–32 cycles). Responses: 62% of patients had PR; 24% had stable disease and 14% had tumor progression. Overall 3-, 5- and 10-year survivals were 59, 36 and 20% of patients with a mean follow-up of 3.2 years (range 2 weeks–18.3 years) and mean survival of 3.3 years. Univariate analysis showed that age greater than 60 years had worse outcome (P < 0.01), as did baseline serum albumin of ≤3.5 g/dL and prothrombin time >13 s. Location of the primary tumor (P = 0.68), gender (P = 0.4) and serum NET peptide levels did not influence survival. However, multivariate analysis showed that a low baseline serum albumin level was an independent factor for prognosis (P = 0.003). Chemoembolization for unresectable NETs metastatic to liver is useful for tumor size reduction, symptom palliation and can be associated with prolonged survival.


Neuroendocrine Cancer Chemoembolization Liver Metastasis Carcinoid 



Neuroendocrine tumor


Computerized tomography


Partial response


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UPMC Liver Cancer CenterUniversity of Pittsburgh, Starzl Transplant InstitutePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medical OncologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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