The Association Between Neuropsychological Function with Serum Vitamins A, D, and E and hs-CRP Concentrations

  • Afsane Bahrami
  • Hamidreza Bahrami-Taghanaki
  • Zahra Khorasanchi
  • Maryam Tayefi
  • Gordon A. Ferns
  • Hamid Reza SadeghniaEmail author
  • Majid Ghayour-MobarhanEmail author


Vitamin status and the presence of subclinical inflammation may affect cognitive performance and behavior. We have investigated the relationship between serum fat soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, and E) and inflammatory markers with aggression and cognitive abilities, in a population of healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 940 adolescent girls was performed. Serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E, hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and antibody titers to Hsp27 (anti-Hsp27) were measured. Hematological indices including lymphocyte, neutrophil, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) were evaluated. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and RDW to platelet ratio (RPR) were calculated. A Cognitive Abilities Questionnaire and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire were applied to assess cognitive performance and aggression, respectively. There was a positive correlation between serum vitamins A with vitamins D and E, as well as between serum hs-CRP with serum vitamin E. Linear regression analysis showed that serum vitamin D, hs-CRP, anti-Hsp27, and RDW were significantly associated with aggression score. Furthermore, serum vitamin E, hs-CRP, anti-Hsp27, NLR, and RPR were significantly associated with cognitive ability score. Inflammatory processes may affect cognitive performance and behavior. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the potential of targeting antioxidant and inflammatory pathways for the treatment of psychological disorder.


Inflammation Vitamin E Cognitive ability Aggression Neutrophil 



We are grateful to all study participants and their parents.

Authors’ Contributions

Concept: M G-M, HRS, H B-T.

Design: A B, H B-T.

Data collection or processing: A B, Z K, G A.F.

Analysis or interpretation: M T.

Literature search: H B-T.

Writing: G A. F, A B.


This study was funded by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Code: 931188) and Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethics Committee Approval

The approval of the Ethic Committee of the Mashad University of Medical Sciences was obtained about this study (931188); informed consent: It was taken.

Informed Consent

“Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”

Conflict of Interest

The authors who have taken part in this study declared that they do not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cellular and Molecular Research CenterBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  2. 2.Complementary and Chinese Medicine, Persian and Complementary Medicine FacultyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  4. 4.Clinical Research UnitMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  5. 5.Division of Medical EducationBrighton and Sussex Medical SchoolSussexUK
  6. 6.Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal PlantsMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  7. 7.Metabolic Syndrome Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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