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Journal of Molecular Neuroscience

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 172–179 | Cite as

Potential of Extracellular Vesicles in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Indications

  • Mehrnaz Izadpanah
  • Arshia Seddigh
  • Somayeh Ebrahimi Barough
  • Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli
  • Jafar Ai
Article
  • 289 Downloads

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles. EVs are nanometer sized, found in physiological fluids such as urine, blood, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), with a capacity of transferring various biological materials such as microRNAs, proteins, and lipids among cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Many cells in the nervous system have been shown to release EVs. These vesicles are involved in intercellular communication and a variety of biological processes such as modulation of immune response, signal transduction, and transport of genetic materials with low immunogenicity; therefore, they have also been recently investigated for the delivery of therapeutic molecules such as siRNAs and drugs in the treatment of diseases. In addition, since EV components reflect the physiological status of the cells and tissues producing them, they can be utilized as biomarkers for early detection of various diseases. In this review, we summarize EV application, in diagnosis as biomarker sources and as a carrier tool for drug delivery in EV-based therapies in neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords

Extracellular vesicle Neurodegenerative disease EV-based therapies 

Abbreviation

EV

Extracellular vesicle

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

ND

Neurodegenerative diseases

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

HD

Huntington’s disease

PD

Parkinson’s disease

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

CD

Cluster of differentiation

MenSC

Menstrual mesenchymal stem cell

BBB

Blood–brain barrier

BMSC

Bone marrow stem cell

CNS

Central nervous system

siRNA

Short interference RNA

RGV

Rabies virus glycoprotein peptide

NTF

Neurotrophic factors

NEP

Neprilysin

Amyloid-beta peptide

GDNF

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor

ASC

Adipose stem cell

GAPDH

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

BACE1

Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

TrkB

Tropomyosin-related kinase B

TLR7

Toll-like receptor 7

TAR

Trans-active response

TDP

DNA-binding protein

SOD1

Superoxide dismutase 1

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Human and Animal Cell BankIranian Biological Resource Center (IBRC), ACECRTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and NeurosurgeryUniversity College London Hospitals NHS TrustLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences and Advanced Technologies in BiologyUniversity of Science and CultureTehranIran

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