Central Nervous System and Vertebrae Development in Horses: a Chronological Study with Differential Temporal Expression of Nestin and GFAP
- 427 Downloads
The neural system is one of the earliest systems to develop and the last to be fully developed after birth. This study presents a detailed description of organogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS) at equine embryonic/fetal development between 19 and 115 days of pregnancy. The expression of two important biomarkers in the main structure of the nervous system responsible for neurogenesis in the adult individual, and in the choroid plexus, was demonstrated by Nestin and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) co-labeling. In the 29th day of pregnancy in the undifferentiated lateral ventricle wall, the presence of many cells expressing Nestin and few expressing GFAP was observed. After the differentiation of the lateral ventricle wall zones at 60 days of pregnancy, the subventricular zone, which initially had greater number of Nestin+ cells, began to show higher numbers of GFAP+ cells at 90 days of pregnancy. A similar pattern was observed for Nestin+ and GFAP+ cells during development of the choroid plexus. This study demonstrates, for the first time, detailed chronological aspects of the equine central nervous system organogenesis associated with downregulation of Nestin and upregulation of GFAP expression.
KeywordsNeurodevelopment Equine Fetal brain development Spinal cord Nerves Ganglia Head trauma
The authors are grateful to Andre L. R. Franciolli for producing some pictures and to Rosangela F. Rodrigues, Márcio N. Rodrigues, and Rafael C. Carvalho for helping during processing of the collected materials.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interests.
- Bifari F, Decimo I, Chiamulera C, Bersan E, Malpeli G, Johansson J, Lisi V, Bonetti B, Fumagalli G, Pizzolo G, Krampera M (2009) Novel stem/progenitor cells with neuronal differentiation potential reside in the leptomeningeal niche. J Cell Mol Med 13:3195–3208PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Blumbergs PC, Reilly PL, Vink R (2008) Trauma. In: Louis DN, Love S, Ellison DW (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology, vol vol. 1. Greenfield’s Neuropathology, Arnold, London, pp. 733–832Google Scholar
- Coumbe C (1996) Head trauma. In: Dyson S (ed) A guide to the management of emergencies at equine competitions. Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd., Newmarket, pp. 71–84Google Scholar
- Decimo I, Bifari F, Rodriguez FJ, Malpeli G, Dolci S, Lavarini V, Pretto S, Vasquez S, Sciancalepore M, Montalbano A, Berton V, Krampera M, Fumagalli G (2011) Nestin and double cortin-positive cells reside in adult spinal cord meninges and participate in injury-induced parenchymal reaction. Stem Cells 29:2062–2076PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dyson S (1996) Neck trauma. In: Dyson S (ed) A guide to the management of emergencies at equine competitions. Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd., Newmarket, pp. 89–91Google Scholar
- Eurell JA, Frappier BL (2007) Dellmann’s textbook of veterinary histology, 6th edn. Blackwell, IowaGoogle Scholar
- Moore Rush B (1997) Central nervous system trauma. In: Robinson NE (ed) Current therapy in equine medicine, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 301–305Google Scholar
- Nottebohm F, Alvarez-Buylla A (1993) Neurogenesis and neuronal replacement in adult birds. In: Cuello AC (ed) Restorative neurology, vol 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 227–236Google Scholar
- Ragle CA (1993) Head trauma. Vet Clin N Am Equine Pract 9:171–183Google Scholar
- Raymond PA, Easter SS Jr (1983) Postembryonic growth of the optic tectumin goldfish. I. Location of germinal cells and numbers of neurons produced. J Neurosci 3:1077–1091Google Scholar
- Sanai N, Tramontin AD, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Barbaro NM, Gupta N, Kunwar S, Lawton MT, McDermott MW, Parsa AT, Manuel-García Verdugo J, Berger MS, Alvarez-Buylla A (2004) Unique astrocyte ribbon in adult human brain contains neural stem cells but lacks chain migration. Nature 427:740–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Summers BA, Cummings JF, de Lahunta A (1995) Veterinary neuropathology. Mosby, St Louis, pp. 189–192Google Scholar
- Yamashita T, Ninomiya M, Hernández Acosta P, García-Verdugo JM, Sunabori T, Sakaguchi M, Adachi K, Kojima T, Hirota Y, Kawase T, Araki N, Abe K, Okano H, Sawamoto K (2006) Subventricular zone derived neuroblasts migrate and differentiate into mature neurons in th epost-stroke adult striatum. J Neurosci 26:6627–6636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Z, Zoltewicz JS, Mondello S, Newsom KJ, Yang Z, Yang B, Kobeissy F, Guingab J, Glushakova O, Robicsek S, Heaton S, Buki A, Hannay J, Gold MS, Rubenstein R, Lu Xi-chun M, Dave JR, Schmid K, Tortella F, Robertson CS, Wang KKW (2014) Human traumatic brain injury induces autoantibody response against glial fibrillary acidic protein and its brake down products. PLoS One 9:e92698PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar