Unfolded Protein Response Pathways in Neurodegenerative Diseases
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The aggregation of disease-specific misfolded proteins resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress is associated with early pathological events in many neurodegenerative diseases, and apoptotic signaling is initiated when the stress goes beyond the maximum threshold level of endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors. All eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by signaling an adaptive pathway termed as unfolded protein response (UPR). Recently, the focus of research shifted from work on specific proteins as pathogenesis in these neurodegenerative diseases towards a more specific generic pathway known as UPR. ER is a major organelle for protein quality control, and cellular stress disrupts normal functioning of ER. The UPR acts as a protective mechanism during endoplasmic reticulum stress, but persistent long-term stress triggers UPR-mediated apoptotic pathways ultimately leading to cell death. Here in this review, we will briefly summarize the molecular events of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated UPR signaling pathways and their potential therapeutic role in neurodegenerative diseases.
KeywordsEndoplasmic reticulum (ER) Unfolded protein response (UPR) Neurodegenerative diseases and apoptotic signaling
This work is supported by 948 projects (2014-S9) and the Program for Cheung Kong Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of China (No. IRT0866).
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