PACAP Application Improves Functional Outcome of Chronic Retinal Ischemic Injury in Rats-Evidence From Electroretinographic Measurements
- 259 Downloads
Retinoprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) are well-known and have been demonstrated in various pathological conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy, excitotoxic retinal injury, UV light-induced degeneration, and ischemic retinal lesion. The neuronal degeneration observed in the different retinal layers under the above pathological conditions can be successfully decreased by PACAP; however, whether this morphological improvement is also reflected in functional amelioration remains unknown. Therefore, our purpose was to investigate the protective effect of PACAP on the rat retina after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) with electroretinography (ERG) to parallel the functional data with the previous morphological and neurochemical observations. Control eyes received saline treatment while PACAP was injected into the vitreous space of the other eye immediately after the induction of ischemia. Retinal damage and protective effects of PACAP were quantified by the changes in the wave forms and amplitudes. On postoperative days 2 and 14, several parameters were assessed with special attention to the changes of b wave. The results confirm that the previously described morphological protection induced by PACAP treatment is reflected in functional improvement in ischemic retinal lesions.
KeywordsRat Electroretinography BCCAO PACAP Functional retinoprotection
This work was supported by PTE-MTA “Lendulet” Program, Arimura Foundation, OTKA K104984, K100144, PD 109644, TAMOP 4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0024, TAMOP 4.2.4.A/2-11-1-2012-0001 “National Excellence Program,” Bolyai Scholarship.
- Gouras P (1970) Electroretinography: some basic principles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 9:557–579Google Scholar
- Nakamachi T, Matkovits A, Seki T, Shioda S (2012) Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the retina. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 3:145Google Scholar
- Noell WK (1953) Studies on the electrophysiology and metabolism of vision. USAF Sch Aviat Med Proj 21:1201Google Scholar
- Noell WK (1963) Cellular physiology of the retina. J Opt Sot Am 53:3643Google Scholar
- Ohtaki H, Nakamachi T, Dohi K, Aizawa Y, Takaki A, Hodoyama K, Yofu S, Hashimoto H, Shintani N, Baba A, Kopf M, Iwakura Y, Matsuda K, Arimura A, Shioda S (2006) Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) decreases ischemic neuronal cell death in association with IL-6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7488–7493PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Perlman I (1995) The electroretinogram. In: Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R (eds) SourceWebvision: The organization of the retina and visual system [Internet]. Salt Lake City, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, 1995-2001 May 01Google Scholar
- Sharp PE, La Regina MC (1998) The laboratory rat—a volume in the laboratory animal pocket reference series. CRC press, USAGoogle Scholar
- Szabadfi K, Atlasz T, Kiss P, Danyadi B, Tamas A, Helyes Z, Hashimoto H, Shintani N, Baba A, Toth G, Gabriel R, Reglodi D (2012b) Mice deficient in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) are more susceptible to retinal ischemic injury in vivo. Neurotox Res 21:41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar