Journal of Molecular Neuroscience

, Volume 36, Issue 1–3, pp 175–187

Urinary Bladder Function and Somatic Sensitivity in Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)−/− Mice

  • Simon Studeny
  • Bopaiah P. Cheppudira
  • Susan Meyers
  • Elena M. Balestreire
  • Gerard Apodaca
  • Lori A. Birder
  • Karen M. Braas
  • James A. Waschek
  • Victor May
  • Margaret A. Vizzard


Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an immunomodulatory neuropeptide widely distributed in neural pathways that regulate micturition. VIP is also an endogenous anti-inflammatory agent that has been suggested for the development of therapies for inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we examined urinary bladder function and hindpaw and pelvic sensitivity in VIP−/− and littermate wildtype (WT) controls. We demonstrated increased bladder mass and fewer but larger urine spots on filter paper in VIP−/− mice. Using cystometry in conscious, unrestrained mice, VIP−/− mice exhibited increased void volumes and shorter intercontraction intervals with continuous intravesical infusion of saline. No differences in transepithelial resistance or water permeability were demonstrated between VIP−/− and WT mice; however, an increase in urea permeability was demonstrated in VIP−/− mice. With the induction of bladder inflammation by acute administration of cyclophosphamide, an exaggerated or prolonged bladder hyperreflexia and hindpaw and pelvic sensitivity were demonstrated in VIP−/− mice. The changes in bladder hyperreflexia and somatic sensitivity in VIP−/− mice may reflect increased expression of neurotrophins and/or proinflammatory cytokines in the urinary bladder. Thus, these changes may further regulate the neural control of micturition.


Neurotrophins Cytokines Cystometry Pelvic pain Bladder permeability 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Studeny
    • 1
  • Bopaiah P. Cheppudira
    • 1
  • Susan Meyers
    • 4
  • Elena M. Balestreire
    • 4
    • 5
  • Gerard Apodaca
    • 4
    • 5
  • Lori A. Birder
    • 4
  • Karen M. Braas
    • 2
  • James A. Waschek
    • 3
  • Victor May
    • 2
  • Margaret A. Vizzard
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Vermont College of MedicineBurlingtonUSA
  2. 2.Anatomy and NeurobiologyUniversity of Vermont College of MedicineBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Mental Retardation Research Center, Semel Institute for Neuroscience, The David Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Renal-Electrolyte Division, Laboratory of Epithelial Cell BiologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Department of Cell Biology and PhysiologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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