Analysis of Candidate Genes at the IBGC1 Locus Associated with Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (“Fahr’s Disease”)
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Basal ganglia calcification (striatopallidodentate calcifications) can be caused by several systemic and neurological disorders. Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC, “Fahr’s disease”), is characterized by basal ganglia and extrabasal ganglia calcifications, parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Because of an increased use of neuroimaging procedures, calcifications of the basal ganglia are visualized more often and precociously. In 1999, a major American family with IBGC was linked to a locus on chromosome 14q (IBGC1). Another small kindred, from Spain, has also been reported as possibly linked to this locus. Here we report the main findings of the first 30 candidate genes sequenced at the IBGC1 locus during the process of searching for a mutation responsible for familial IBGC. During the sequencing process, we identified a heterozygous nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (exon 20 of the MGEA6/c-TAGE gene) shared by the affected and not present in the controls. This SNP was randomly screened in the general population (348 chromosomes) in a minor allele frequency to 0.0058 (two heterozygous among 174 subjects). Another variation in this gene, in the exon 9, was found in the Spanish family. However, this variation was extremely common in the general population. Functional and population studies are necessary to fully access the implications of the MGEA6 gene in familial IBGC, and a complete sequencing of the IBGC1 locus will be necessary to define a gene responsible for familial IBGC.
KeywordsFahr’s disease Basal ganglia calcification Parkinsonism Sequencing Neuropsychiatric disorders
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