Advertisement

NanoBiotechnology

, Volume 3, Issue 3–4, pp 164–171 | Cite as

Theoretical Simulation and Focused Ion Beam Fabrication of Gold Nanostructures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

  • Anuj Dhawan
  • Michael Gerhold
  • Tuan Vo-Dinh
Article

Abstract

This paper describes the fabrication of gold nanopillar and nanorod arrays and theoretical calculations of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) around ordered arrangements of these nanostructures. The EMFs of both single nanopillars and dimers of nanopillars—having nanoscale gaps between the two adjacent nanopillars forming the dimers—are simulated in this work by employing the finite-difference time-domain method. In the case of simulations for dimers of nanopillars, the nanoscale gaps between the nanopillars are varied between 5 and 20 nm, and calculations of the electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the nanopillars and in the gaps between the nanopillars were carried out. Fabrication of gold nanopillars in a controlled manner for forming SERS substrates involves focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The nanostructures were fabricated on gold-coated silica, mica, and quartz planar substrates as well as on gold-coated tips of four mode and multimode silica optical fibers.

Keywords

SERS FIB LSPR EMF FDTD 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was sponsored by the US Army Research Office, National Research Council, and the National Institutes of Health (Grants R01 EB006201 and R01 ES014774).

References

  1. 1.
    Fujiwara K, Watarai H, Itoh H, Nakahama E, Ogawa N. Measurement of antibody binding to protein immobilized on gold nanoparticles by localized surface plasmon spectroscopy. Anal Bioanal Chem 2006;386:639–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dhawan A, Gerhold MD, Muth JF. In-line fiber sensors for environmental sensing. Int J High Speed Electron 2008;18(1):167–77, Special Issue.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dhawan A, Muth JF. In-line optical fiber sensors for environmental sensing applications. Optics Lett 2006;31:1391–3.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gerhold MD, Dhawan A, Muth JF. In-line fiber sensors for environmental sensing. Proc. Intl. Sym. For Spectral Sensing Research. 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vo-Dinh T, Hiromoto MYK, Begun GM, Moody RL. Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy for trace organic analysis. Anal Chem 1984;56:1667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alak AM, Vo-Dinh T. Surface-enhanced raman spectrometry of organo-phosphorus chemical agents. Anal Chem 1987;59:2149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nie S, Emory SR. Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Science 1997;275:1102–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kneipp K, Wang Y, Keipp H, Perelman LT, Itzkan I, Dasari RR, et al. Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Phys Rev Lett 1997;78:1667–70.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haes AJ, Van Duyne RP. A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Anal Bioanal Chem 2004;379:920–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dhawan A, Muth JF. Plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticles incorporated inside an optical fibre matrix. Nanotechnology 2006;17:2504–11.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raether H. Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings. Berlin: Springer; 1988.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fujiwara K, Watarai H, Toh H, Nakahama E, Ogawa N. Measurement of antibody binding, to protein immobilized on gold nanoparticles by localized surface plasmon spectroscopy. Anal Bioanal Chem 2006;386:639–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Le Ru EC, Etchegoin PG, Meyer M. Enhancement factor distribution around a single surface-enhanced Raman scattering hot spot and its relation to single molecule detection. J Chem Phys 2006;125:204701.PubMedCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maxwell DJ, Emory SR, Nie S. Nanostructured thin-film materials with surface-enhanced optical properties. Chem Mater 2001;13:1082–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Otto A, Mrozek I, Grabhorn H, Akemann W. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering. J Phys: Condens Matter 1992;4:1143–212.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vo-Dinh T. Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy using metallic nanostructures. Trends in Anal Chem 1998;17:557–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vo-Dinh T. SERS chemical sensors and biosensors: new tools for environmental and biological analysis. Sens Actuators 1995;29:183–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taflove A, Hagness SC. Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method. 2nd ed. Boston: Artech; 2000.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lazzi G, Gandhi OP. Realistically tilted and truncated anatomically based models of the human head for dosimetry of mobile telephones. IEEE Trans Electromagn Compat 1997;39:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Futamata M, Maruyama Y, Ishikawa M. Local electric field and scattering cross section of Ag nanoparticles under surface plasmon resonance by finite difference time domain method. J Phys Chem B 2003;107(31):7607–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Phillips GR, Griffis DP, Russell PE. Channeling effects during focused-ion-beam micromachining of copper. J Vac Sci Technol, A 2000;18:1061.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gonzalez JC, Griffis DP, Miau TT, Russell PE. Chemically enhanced focused ion beam micromachining of copper. J Vac Sci Technol, B, Microelectron Nanometer Struct 2001;19(6):2539–42.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tseng AA. Recent developments in nanofabrication using focused ion beams. Small 2005;1(10):924–39.PubMedCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., 2009 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics, Departments of Biomedical Engineering and ChemistryDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.US Army Research OfficeResearch Triangle ParkDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations