Concerns and Fear of Esophageal Cancer in Relatives of Patients with Cancer: a Qualitative Study
- 8 Downloads
Due to its complications and mortality, cancer is a vital public health problem and one of the most frightening diseases, and its development causes a sense of risk, problems, and discomforts for all, including family of patients. The aim of this study was to elaborate on the concerns and fear of esophageal cancer in relatives with cancer illness.
Using a content analysis approach, this qualitative study was carried out in Golestan, North of Iran, in 2018. Participants were one of the family members of a patient with esophageal cancer who were selected purposefully. Data were collected using semi-structured and deep interviews and continued until data saturation was achieved. Twenty-three participants were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed line by line and were coded and categorized, and concepts were extracted accordance with qualitative content analysis approach, using MAXQDA 11 software.
Following data analysis on the concerns and fear of cancer among relatives of patients, the main themes “fear of social consequences,” “fear of treatment consequences,” “fear of psychological consequences,” “cancer phobia,” “concern about lack of information on the disease,” “fear of disease reactions,” and “fear of disease-related changes” were extracted.
Family of patients with esophageal cancer were afraid of disease-induced consequences and lack of knowledge about the disease. Through educating people about the symptoms of the disease, we can reduce their fears and empower them for self-caring and preventing cancer.
KeywordsQualitative study Esophageal cancer Fear Family Iran
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study. Also all participants consented/assented to having de-identified quotes used in publication in the consent/assent form.
The project had ethical review and approval of Medical Sciences (ethical code: IR.SSU.SPH.REC.1396.125).
- 9.Biglu M-H, Tabatabaei S. Gastrointestinal cancers in Iran: Iranian scientists approach to gastrointestinal cancers researches in international databases. Koomesh. 2017;19(1):1–9.Google Scholar
- 13.Cronin P, Coughlan M, Smith V. Understanding nursing and healthcare research: Sage; 2014.Google Scholar
- 16.Denzin NK, Lincoln YS. Handbook of qualitative research: Sage publications, inc; 1994.Google Scholar
- 22.Manafi F, GH D. Fear of disease progression in patients with cancer and multiple sclerosis and its relation to emotional problems Health Psychology. Journal health Psychology. 2017;6(2):115–30.Google Scholar
- 25.Esmaeili R, Ahmadi F, Mohammadi E, Janbabaei G. Determining the process of confronting with cancer: the theory of “Finding Hope And Support For Surviving” in the face of cancer. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications. 2015;24:17–22.Google Scholar
- 30.Jawaid M, Qamar B, Masood Z, Jawaid SA. Disclosure of cancer diagnosis: Pakistani patients’ perspective. Middle East Journal of Cancer. 2010;1(2):89–94.Google Scholar
- 31.Faridhosseini F, Ardestani MS, Shirkhani F, editors. Disclosure of cancer diagnosis: what Iranian patients do prefer? Annals of general psychiatry; 2010: Springer.Google Scholar
- 32.Bakhshi Biniaz R, Goudarzi M, Sahmani M, Moghaddasi M, Dehghanifard A, Vatanmakanian M, et al. Challenges in the treatment of Iranian patients with leukemia in comparison with developed countries from the perspective of specialists. Journal of Paramedical Sciences. 2014.Google Scholar