Microbiome Dysbiosis and Predominant Bacterial Species as Human Cancer Biomarkers

  • Mohsen Sagheb R. Shirazi
  • K. Z. K. Al-Alo
  • Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri
  • Zainab M. Lateef
  • Abdolmajid GhasemianEmail author
Review Article



To evaluate bacterial agents as cancer biomarkers.

Methods and Results

Various bacterial species have been demonstrated to involve in human cancers. However, the data is not enough for better understanding of predominant specific species. Application of a rapid and early-diagnostic, cost-effective, non-invasive, and inclusive method is a crucial approach for obtaining valid results. The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastric and duodenal cancer has been confirmed. From investigation among previous publications, we attempted to make it clear which bacterial species significantly and specifically increase in various cancer types. It was unraveled that there is significant change in Granulicatella adiacens (G. adiacens) in lung cancer (LC), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) in colorectal cancer (CRC), H. pylori and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in pancreatic cancer, and Streptococcus spp. in oral cancer.


Alteration in the cell cycle by means of different mechanisms such as inflammation, alteration in cell signaling, invasion and immune evasion, specific niche colonization, induction of DNA damage and mutation, expression of some microRNAs, and enhancing epigenetic effects are the most common mechanisms employed by bacterial species.


Bacterial biomarkers Cancer Microbiome Dysbiosis 


Funding Information

This study was supported by Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Central Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of KufaKufaIraq
  3. 3.Biology Department, College of ScienceUniversity of ThiQarNasiriyahIraq
  4. 4.University of BaghdadBaghdadIraq

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