Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 537–542 | Cite as

Clinical Significance of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Pigment Epithelium–Derived Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Progranulin Levels in Patients with Gastric Cancer and Gastric Precancerous Lesions

  • Evrim Kahramanoğlu AksoyEmail author
  • Muhammet Yener Akpınar
  • Özlem Doğan
  • Zeynep Göktaş
  • Ferdane Pirinççi Sapmaz
  • Gülçin Güler Şimşek
  • Metin Uzman
  • Yaşar Nazlıgül
Original Research



The purpose of this study is to evaluate serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and progranulin in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and precancerous lesions (PCL) and to determine the usefulness of these markers as diagnostic biomarkers in these diseases.


A total of 32 GC patients, 35 PCL patients, and 23 healthy controls participated in the study. The serum levels of VEGF, PEDF, TNF-α, and progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


The mean serum VEGF levels were 30.6 ± 12.98 pg/mL in GC, 18.2 ± 5.72 pg/mL in PCL, and 17.5 ± 5.59 pg/mL in controls. GC VEGF levels were significantly higher than both PCL and control groups (p < 0.001). The mean serum PEDF levels were 1516.1 ± 993.8 pg/mL in GC, 1039.1 ± 1002.3 pg/mL in PCL, and 767.5 ± 661.5 pg/mL in controls. The serum PEDF level in the GC group was significantly higher than that in both PCL and control groups (p = 0.004 and p = 0.038, respectively). The mean serum TNF-α levels were 46.7 ± 14.82 pg/mL in GC, 38.4 ± 11.89 pg/mL in PCL, and 33.8 ± 12.77 pg/mL in controls. There was a significant difference between GC and controls (p = 0.022) in TNF-α levels. The mean serum progranulin levels in GC were 2496.6 ± 737.8 pg/mL, 2332.0 ± 482.1 pg/mL in PCL, and 1288.7 ± 830.9 pg/mL in controls. Progranulin levels in both GC and PCL groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.001 for both).


There were significant differences among patients with GC and PCL and healthy controls in terms of serum VEGF, PEDF, TNF-α, and progranulin levels.


Gastric cancer Gastric atrophy Intestinal metaplasia VEGF PEDF TNF-α Progranulin 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee (Keçiören Training and Research Hospital with reference number 01.2018/1601) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evrim Kahramanoğlu Aksoy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammet Yener Akpınar
    • 1
  • Özlem Doğan
    • 2
  • Zeynep Göktaş
    • 3
  • Ferdane Pirinççi Sapmaz
    • 1
  • Gülçin Güler Şimşek
    • 4
  • Metin Uzman
    • 1
  • Yaşar Nazlıgül
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyKeçiören Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryAnkara University Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Dietetics, Nutrition, Faculty of Health SciencesHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of PathologyKeçiören Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey

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