The Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Iran from 1996 to 2016: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Soheil Hassanipour
  • Majid Mohammadzadeh
  • Fariborz Mansour-GhanaeiEmail author
  • Mohammad Fathalipour
  • Farahnaz Joukar
  • Hamid Salehiniya
  • Elham Abdzadeh
  • Ali Akbar Samadani
  • Hossein-Ali Nikbakht
  • Morteza Arab-Zozani
Review Article



Hepatocellular carcinoma or liver cancer (LC) is one of most important cancer around the world. There are several reports about LC incidence from various Iranian locations with conflicting results. The present study aimed to accomplish a systematic review to estimate the accurate incidence rate of LC among Iranian people.


This systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist in 2018. A literature search was conducted using international databases (Medline/PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) for English papers and national databases (Scientific Information Database, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc) for Persian papers which estimated incidence rate of LC in any geographical area of Iran. The incidence rate of LC was calculated using random effect model.


Of 171 papers in the primary searches, 15 studies were included by advanced screening and refinement. The age-standardized rate (ASR) of LC was 1.66 (95% CI 1.49–1.83) for males and 1.25 (95% CI 1.12–1.38) for females.


The incidence rate of LC in Iran was lower in comparison to other countries. Afterwards, more studies are necessary to outline the accurate incidence rate and the trend of LC among Iranian population.


Incidence Hepatocellular carcinoma Iran Systematic review Meta-analysis 


Funding Information

This study was financially provided by Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This study was conducted in compliance with the provisions of the Helsinki Declaration. The protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Guilan University of Medical Sciences.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soheil Hassanipour
    • 1
  • Majid Mohammadzadeh
    • 2
  • Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Fathalipour
    • 3
  • Farahnaz Joukar
    • 1
  • Hamid Salehiniya
    • 4
    • 5
  • Elham Abdzadeh
    • 6
  • Ali Akbar Samadani
    • 1
  • Hossein-Ali Nikbakht
    • 7
  • Morteza Arab-Zozani
    • 8
  1. 1.Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research CenterGuilan University of Medical SciencesRashtIran
  2. 2.Student Research CommitteeShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of PharmacyHormozgan University of Medical SciencesBandar AbbasIran
  4. 4.Zabol University of Medical SciencesZabolIran
  5. 5.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsTehran University of medical sciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of GuilanRashtIran
  7. 7.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research InstituteBabol University of Medical SciencesBabolIran
  8. 8.Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, School of Management and Medical InformaticsTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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