“Pure” High-Grade Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Arising from Low- and High-Grade Dysplasia of the Gallbladder: Case Report and Review of the Literature
- 36 Downloads
Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gallbladder are classified as grades 1 and 2 neuroendocrine tumors, neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) (large cell (LCNEC) or small cell type (SCNEC)), and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) . NEC of the gallbladder is rare, comprising 0.5% of all neuroendocrine tumors and 2.1% of all gallbladder cancers . In most cases of NEC of the gallbladder, the histological components include adenocarcinoma [3, 4, 5]. Among the reported cases of NEC of the gallbladder, only seven reported cases were “pure” LCNEC without adenocarcinoma component [3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. The origin of such tumors has been debated, with varying support for each theory. The primary concepts consist of the malignant transformation of neuroendocrine cells derived from multipotent stem cell within the gallbladder or the malignant transformation of neuroendocrine cells in metaplastic intestinal or gastric mucosa secondary to chronic inflammation [3, 5].
We here report,...
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interests
The authors have no conflict of interests.
- 1.Komminoth P, Arnold R, Capella C et al. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts. In: Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise HD, editors. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System. Fourth edition. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010, p. 274–276.Google Scholar
- 9.Okuyama Y, Fukui A, Enoki Y, Morishita H, Yoshida N, Fujimoto S. A large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder: diagnosis with 18 FDGPET/CT-guided biliary cytology and treatment with combined chemotherapy achieved a long-term stable condition. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013;43:571–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Travis WD, Linnoila RI, Tsokos MG, Hitchcock CL, Cutler GB, Nieman L, et al. Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung with proposed criteria for large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. An ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric study of 35 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1991;15:529–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar