Association of High Expression Levels of SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 in Gastric Cancer Tumor Tissues with Progression and Poor Prognosis
- 11 Downloads
Expression of the essential regulator genes, SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4, so-called as stemness factors, is prerequisite for the tumorigenic capability of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their potential role in the formation and progression of various human cancers.
In this study, the expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 were quantified by a qRT-PCR method in 100 gastric cancer tumor tissues vs the paired adjacent normal tissues. Then, the relationship between the expression of the three genes in gastric cancer tumor tissues and the clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival of patients was investigated.
Higher expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 were found in gastric cancer tumor tissues compared with those in paired adjacent normal tissues (P = 0.0001). Overexpression of the mentioned genes in gastric cancer tumor tissues was resolved to be significantly associated with tumor size (P < 0.05), TNM stage (P = 0.001), tumor grade (P < 0.01), and shortened overall survival time (P = 0.0001).
These findings indicted that the stemness factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 are significantly overexpressed in gastric cancer and may serve as potential biomarkers of gastric cancer progression and prognosis.
KeywordsGastric cancer Prognosis Stemness factors
GB and AER conceived and designed the study and wrote the manuscript. HM was responsible for data collection. AER and HM performed the study and contributed the reagents/materials/analysis tools. GB analyzed the data. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
This work was supported by Ilam University of Medical Sciences (942020/158) and the Cancer Institute of Iran.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 4.Bu Y, Cao D. The origin of cancer stem cells. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2012;4:819–30.Google Scholar
- 17.Liu A, Yu X, Liu S. Pluripotency transcription factors and cancer stem cells: small genes make a big difference. Chin J Cancer. 2013;32(9):483–7.Google Scholar
- 18.Hadjimichael C, Chanoumidou K, Papadopoulou N, et al. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells. World J Stem Cells. 2015;7(9):1150–84.Google Scholar
- 23.Li XL, Eishi Y, Bai YQ, Sakai H, Akiyama Y, Tani M, et al. Expression of the SRY-related HMG box protein SOX2 in human gastric carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2004;24(2):257–63.Google Scholar
- 29.Long W, Zhao W, Ning B, et al. PHF20 collaborates with PARP1 to promote stemness and aggressiveness of neuroblastoma cells through activation of SOX2 and OCT4. J Mol Cell Biol. 2018;14.Google Scholar
- 31.Jiang W, Zhang P, Li G, Dong JH, Wang XS, Wang YY. Oct-4 is associated with gastric cancer progression and prognosis. Onco Targets Ther. 2016;9:517–22.Google Scholar