Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 143–151

Risk Factors for Rising Incidence of Esophageal and Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma

  • Jacquelyn S. Carr
  • Syed F. Zafar
  • Nabil Saba
  • Fadlo R. Khuri
  • Bassel F. El-Rayes
Review Article

Abstract

Introduction

In the last 30 years, the incidence of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has steadily increased. The increase in incidence is approximately seven-fold, which is a more substantial increase than that of several malignancies, including melanoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

Discussion

The rising incidence has led to a steady increase in mortality from 2 to 15 deaths per 100,000 in the last three decades. The etiologic factors involved in the development of these malignancies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, acid-suppressive medication use, obesity, and tobacco use. This article discusses the contribution of these etiologic risk factors to this increase in incidence.

Keywords

Esophageal adenocarcinoma Risk factors Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacquelyn S. Carr
    • 1
  • Syed F. Zafar
    • 2
  • Nabil Saba
    • 2
  • Fadlo R. Khuri
    • 2
  • Bassel F. El-Rayes
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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