Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 8–12

Dietary Shifts and Human Health: Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease in a Sustainable World


DOI: 10.1007/s12029-011-9345-2

Cite this article as:
Lindeberg, S. J Gastrointest Canc (2012) 43: 8. doi:10.1007/s12029-011-9345-2



Increasing evidence suggests that optimal food choice is critical for sizable prevention of western diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Mediterranean diet is an important step in this direction. Moreover, substantially lower rates of Western disease, even compared to Mediterranean countries, have been observed among hunter–gatherers and other non-western populations (Lindeberg 2010). Observational studies and controlled trials support the notion that an evolutionary perspective is helpful when designing food models for optimal human health.


However, sustainable health for the individual patient is not enough: environmental sustainability must also be considered. Are fish and fruit sustainable for everyone? Are starchy root vegetables a better option than cereal grains? Is locally produced meat an underestimated wholesome food? These and other questions need to be addressed in order to cut greenhouse gases and the consumption of (blue) water and nonrenewable energy.


Evolution Paleo diet Non-western populations Cancer Atherosclerotic disease Milk Cereal grains Starchy root vegetables Fruit Sustainability 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Primary Health Care ResearchLund UniversityLundSweden

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