Therapeutic Temperature Modulation for Fever After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
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We sought to determine whether therapeutic temperature modulation (TTM) to treat fever after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with improved hospital complications and discharge outcomes.
We performed a retrospective case–control study of patients admitted with spontaneous ICH having two consecutive fevers ≥38.3 °C despite acetaminophen administration. Cases were enrolled from a prospective database of patients receiving TTM from 2006 to 2010. All cases received TTM for fever control with goal temperature of 37 °C with a shiver-control protocol. Controls were matched in severity by ICH score and retrospectively obtained from 2001 to 2004, before routine use of TTM for ICH. Primary outcome was discharge-modified Rankin score.
Forty patients were enrolled in each group. Median admission ICH Score, ICH volume, and GCS were similar. TTM was initiated with a median of 3 days after ICH onset and for a median duration of 7 days. Mean daily T max was significantly higher in the control group over the first 12 days (38.1 vs. 38.7 °C, p ≤ 0.001). The TTM group had more days of IV sedation (median 8 vs. 1, p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (18 vs. 9, p = 0.003), and more frequently underwent tracheostomy (55 vs. 23 %, p = 0.005). Mean NICU length of stay was longer for TTM patients (15 vs. 11 days, p = 0.007). There was no difference in discharge outcomes between the two groups (overall mortality 33 %, moderate or severe disability 67 %).
Therapeutic normothermia is associated with increased duration of sedation, mechanical ventilation, and NICU stay, but is not clearly associated with improved discharge outcome.
KeywordsTherapeutic temperature modulation Normothermia Fever Intracerebral hemorrhage
Stephan Mayer has received consulting fees from Acetlion, Biogen Idec, CSL Behring, Haemonetics, Medivance/CR Bard, Neuroptics, Orsan Technologies, Pfizer, Sage Therapeutics, Sanofi-Aventis, Stryker, and Edge Therapeutics; Stock/Stock Options in Orsan Technologies.
Conflict of interest
Aaron S. Lord, Sarah Karinja, Hector Lantigua, Amanda Carpenter, J. Michael Schmidt, Jan Claassen, Sachin Agarwal, E. Sander Connolly, and Neeraj Badjatia declare no conflicts.