CTA Spot Sign Predicts Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Delayed Presentation After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
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Hematoma expansion after acute intracerebral hemorrhage occurs most frequently in patients presenting within 3 h of symptom onset. However, the majority of patients present outside this window or with an unknown onset time. We investigated the prevalence of hematoma expansion in these patients and assessed the accuracy of the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign for identifying risk of hematoma expansion.
We analyzed 391 consecutive patients undergoing CTA and a followup CT. CTA spot sign readings were performed by two experienced readers and hematoma expansion was assessed by means of semi-automated software.
Hematoma expansion occurred in 18 % of patients. When stratified by time from symptom onset to initial CT, hematoma expansion rates were: 39 % within 3 h; 11 % between 3 and 6 h, 11 % beyond 6 h (but with known onset), and 20 % in patients with unknown symptom onset. Of patients who developed hematoma expansion, only 38 % presented within 3 h. The accuracy of the spot sign in predicting hematoma expansion was 0.67 for patients presenting within 3 h, 0.83 between 3 and 6 h, 0.88 after 6 h, and 0.76 for patients presenting with an unknown onset time.
A substantial number of patients destined to suffer from hematoma expansion present either late or with an unknown symptom onset time. The CTA spot sign accurately identifies patients destined to expand regardless of time from symptom onset, and may therefore open a path to offer clinical trials and novel therapies to the many patients who do not present acutely.
KeywordsIntracerebral hemorrhage CT angiography CTA spot sign Hematoma expansion Late presentation
All funding entities had no involvement in study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation, writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to submit for publication. The project described was supported by the Grant Numbers R01NS073344, R01NS059727, and 5K23NS059774 from the National Institutes of Health—National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH–NINDS) and the American Heart Association Grant Number 0755984T. Dr. Brouwers was supported by the NIH–NINDS SPOTRIAS fellowship grant P50NS051343. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or the National Institutes of Health.
H.B. Brouwers, none; G.J. Falcone, none; K.A. McNamara, none; A.M. Ayres, none; A. Oleinik, none; K. Schwab, none; J.M. Romero, Imaging Committee DIAS trial/advisory board Lundbeck pharmaceuticals; A. Viswanathan, none; S.M. Greenberg, Research Grant NIH, Honoraria: Medtronic, Pfizer, Consultant/advisory board: Hoffman-La Roche, Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; J. Rosand, Research Grant NIH and American Heart Association; J.N. Goldstein, Research Grant NIH–NINDS, Consultant/advisory board CSL Behring.
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