Comparison of Hematoma Shape and Volume Estimates in Warfarin Versus Non-Warfarin-Related Intracerebral Hemorrhage
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Hematoma volume is a major determinant of outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Accurate volume measurements are critical for predicting outcome and are thought to be more difficult in patients with oral anticoagulation-related ICH (OAT-ICH) due to a higher frequency of irregular shape. We examined hematoma shape and methods of volume assessment in patients with OAT-ICH.
We performed a case–control analysis of a prospectively identified cohort of consecutive patients with ICH. We retrospectively reviewed 50 consecutive patients with OAT-ICH and 50 location-matched non-OAT-ICH controls. Two independent readers analyzed CT scans for hematoma shape and volume using both ABC/2 and ABC/3 methods. Readers were blinded to all clinical variables including warfarin status. Gold-standard ICH volumes were determined using validated computer-assisted planimetry.
Within this cohort, median INR in patients with OAT-ICH was 3.2. Initial ICH volume was not significantly different between non-OAT-ICH and OAT-ICH (35 ± 38 cc vs. 53 ± 56 cc, P = 0.4). ICH shape did not differ by anticoagulation status (round shape in 10% of OAT-ICH vs. 16% of non-OAT-ICH, P = 0.5). The ABC/3 calculation underestimated median volume by 9 (3–28) cc, while the ABC/2 calculation did so by 4 (0.8–12) cc.
Hematoma shape was not statistically significantly different in patients with OAT-ICH. Among bedside approaches, the standard ABC/2 method offers reasonable approximation of hematoma volume in OAT-ICH and non-OAT-ICH.
KeywordsCerebral hemorrhage Tomography X-ray computed Warfarin