Effect of Treatment of Elevated Blood Pressure on Neurological Deterioration in Patients with Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
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Treatment of elevated blood pressure after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is controversial. There is a risk of hematoma expansion with elevated blood pressure, and risk of ischemia with blood pressure control. This study was done to determine the effect of blood pressure control on outcome.
We retrospectively studied 122 patients with ICH. We collected 24-h blood pressure readings on all patients. The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) at baseline and at 24 h was used to determine neurological deterioration (GCS decline ≥ 2). Baseline computerized tomography (CT) scans were reviewed for hematoma volume, intraventricular hemorrhage, and location of hemorrhage. Drops in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures over 24 h were divided in quartiles to determine the risk of neurological deterioration among quartiles. A logistic regression model was used to determine the association between variables of interest and neurological deterioration.
Neurological deterioration was observed in 12 patients (10%). Baseline blood pressure and GCS were only two variables significantly different among quartiles of blood pressure drop. Multivariable adjusted analysis for these variables demonstrated significant trend toward reduced neurological deterioration with maximum blood pressure drop (systolic or mean). The risk of neurological deterioration was significantly lower in the quartile of maximum drop of systolic (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0–0.68) or mean (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.0–0.98) blood pressure when compared to the quartile with least drop.
This study supports that reduction of blood pressure in patients with acute ICH is safe and suggests that aggressive reduction might reduce the risk of neurological deterioration in first 24 h of admission.
KeywordsIntracerebral hemorrhage Outcome Hypertension Neurological deterioration Hypertensive emergency
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