Advertisement

ERA Forum

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 581–595 | Cite as

The powers of national regulatory authorities as agents of EU law

  • Stéphanie De Somer
Article
  • 162 Downloads

Abstract

Over the past few decades, National Regulatory Authorities have acquired a central role in the implementation of EU law. NRAs are established by the Member States, implying that they are part of the national administrative organisation chart. Their creation, however, is compulsory under EU law. Today’s NRAs derive most of their competences from EU legislation, even if the formal legal basis of their tasks and powers is typically the national legislation that implements the EU directives. Focusing on NRAs in the field of network regulation, which are characterised by the far-reaching requirements of (political) independence that EU law imposes, this paper maps this trend of ‘empowering’ NRAs and some of the challenges on the level of accountability that go hand in hand with it.

Keywords

National regulatory authorities Network industries Powers Accountability Judicial review 

References

  1. 1.
    Aelen, M.: Beginselen van goed markttoezicht. Boom Juridische Uitgevers, Den Haag (2014) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldwin, R., Cave, M., Lodge, M.: Understanding Regulation. Theory, Strategy and Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2012) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Somer, S., Opdebeek, I.: The duty to give reasons in the European legal area: a mechanism for transparent and accountable administrative decision-making? A comparison of Belgian, Dutch, French and EU administrative law. Public Administration Yearbook, 97–148 (2016) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Somer, S.: Autonomous Public Bodies and the Law. A European Perspective. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haguenau-Moizard, C., Sanchez, Y.: The principle of proportionality in European law. In: Ranchordás, S., de Waard, B. (eds.) The Judge and the Proportionate Use of Discretion. A Comparative Study. Routledge, New York (2016) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Halberstam, D.: The promise of comparative administrative law: a constitutional perspective on independent agencies. In: Rose-Ackerman, S., Lindseth, P. (eds.) Comparative Administrative Law. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2010) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harlow, C., Rawlings, R.: Law and Administration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hofmann, H.C.H., Mihaescu, B.C.: The relation between the Charter’s fundamental rights and the unwritten general principles of EU law: good administration as the test case. Eur. Const. Law Rev., 73–101 (2013) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kańska, K.: Towards administrative human rights in the EU. Impact of the Charter of fundamental rights. Eur. Law J., 296–326 (2004) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kristjánsdóttir, M.V.: Good administration as a fundamental right. Icelandic Review of Politics and Administration, 237–255 (2013) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lavrijssen, S., Ottow, A.: Independent supervisory authorities: a fragile concept. Leg. Issues Eur. Integr., 419–446 (2012) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lavrijssen, S., Ottow, A.: The legality of independent regulatory authorities. In: Besselink, L., Pennings, F., Prechal, S. (eds.) The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union. Kluwer, Alpen aan den Rijn (2011) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maggetti, M.: Legitimacy and accountability of independent regulatory agencies: a critical review. Living Rev. Democr. (2010) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mak, E.: Judicial review of regulatory instruments: the least imperfect alternative? Int. J. Study Legis., 301–319 (2012) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nicolaïdes, P.: Regulation of liberalised markets: a new role for the state. In: Geradin, D., Muñoz, R., Petit, N. (eds.) Regulation Trough Agencies in the EU. A New Paradigm of European Governance. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2005) Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ottow, A.: Market & Competition Authorities. Good Agency Principles. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2015) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ottow, A.: The different levels of protection of national supervisors’ independence in the European landscape. In: Comptois, S., de Graaf, K. (eds.) On Judicial and Quasi-judicial Independence. Boom Juridische Uitgevers, Den Haag (2013) Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Papadopoulos, Y.: Problems of democratic accountability in network and multilevel governance. Eur. Law J., 469–486 (2007) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Petit, N.: The proliferation of national regulatory authorities alongside competition authorities: a source of jurisdictional confusion. GCLC Working Paper 02/04, Available at https://www.coleurope.eu/research-paper/proliferation-national-regulatory-authorities-alongside-competition-authorities
  20. 20.
    Prosser, T.: Regulation and legitimacy. In: Jowell, J., Oliver, D. (eds.) The Changing Constitution, 7th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2011) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rawlings, R.: Changed conditions, old truths: judicial review in a regulatory laboratory. In: Oliver, D., Prosser, T., Rawlings, R. (eds.) The Regulatory State. Constitutional Implications. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2010) Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Taton, X.: Les recours juridictionnels en matière de régulation. Larcier, Brussels (2010) Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Van den Bergh, C.: The relationship between sector specific regulation and competition law in the energy sector—living apart together? In: Delvaux, B., Hunt, M., Talus, K. (eds.) EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Intersentia, Cambridge (2012) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vegter, J.G., Maandag, P.I.W.R.: Regelgeving en beleid door onafhankelijke toezichthouders: de praktijk van ACM. RegelMaat, 201–220 (2015) Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ziller, J.: Les autorités administratives indépendantes entre droit interne et droit de l’Union européenne. Revue Française de Droit Administratif, 901–906 (2010) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ERA 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations