Phospholipid supplementation can attenuate vaccine-induced depressive-like behavior in mice
Human papillomavirus vaccine (HPVv) is used worldwide for prevention of infection. However several reports link this vaccine, with immune-mediated reactions, especially with neurological manifestations. Our previous results showed that HPVv-Gardasil and aluminum-immunized mice developed behavioral impairments. Studies have shown a positive effect of phospholipid supplementation on depression and cognitive functions in mice. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement on vaccine-induced depression. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were immunized with HPVv-Gardasil, aluminum or the vehicle (n = 20 each group), and half of each group were fed 5 times per week with 0.2 ml of a dietary supplement enriched with phosphatidylcholine. The mice were evaluated for depression at 3 months of age, by the forced swimming test. Both the Gardasil and the aluminum-treated mice developed depressive-like behavior when compared to the control group. The HPVv-Gardasil-immunized mice supplemented with phosphatidylcholine significantly reduced their depressive symptoms. This study confirms our previous studies demonstrating depressive-like behavior in mice vaccinated with HPVv-Gardasil. In addition, it demonstrates the ability of phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet to attenuate depressive-like behavior in the HPVv-Gardasil-vaccinated mice. We suggest that phosphatidylcholine supplementation may serve as a treatment for patients suffering vaccine-related neurological manifestations.
KeywordsGardasil Aluminum Depression Behavior Autoimmunity
Human papillomavirus vaccine
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants
Forced swimming test
Multivariate analysis of variance
Central nervous system
Chronic fatigue syndrome
This work was supported by Judy and Stewart Colton as part of the Ph.D. Project of María-Teresa Arango.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Yehuda Shoenfeld has acted as a consultant for the no-fault U.S. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The other co-authors declare no competing interests.
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