Immunologic Research

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 99–105

Phospholipid supplementation can attenuate vaccine-induced depressive-like behavior in mice

  • Shaye Kivity
  • Maria-Teresa Arango
  • Nicolás Molano-González
  • Miri Blank
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld
Environment and Autoimmunity

DOI: 10.1007/s12026-016-8818-6

Cite this article as:
Kivity, S., Arango, MT., Molano-González, N. et al. Immunol Res (2017) 65: 99. doi:10.1007/s12026-016-8818-6


Human papillomavirus vaccine (HPVv) is used worldwide for prevention of infection. However several reports link this vaccine, with immune-mediated reactions, especially with neurological manifestations. Our previous results showed that HPVv-Gardasil and aluminum-immunized mice developed behavioral impairments. Studies have shown a positive effect of phospholipid supplementation on depression and cognitive functions in mice. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement on vaccine-induced depression. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were immunized with HPVv-Gardasil, aluminum or the vehicle (n = 20 each group), and half of each group were fed 5 times per week with 0.2 ml of a dietary supplement enriched with phosphatidylcholine. The mice were evaluated for depression at 3 months of age, by the forced swimming test. Both the Gardasil and the aluminum-treated mice developed depressive-like behavior when compared to the control group. The HPVv-Gardasil-immunized mice supplemented with phosphatidylcholine significantly reduced their depressive symptoms. This study confirms our previous studies demonstrating depressive-like behavior in mice vaccinated with HPVv-Gardasil. In addition, it demonstrates the ability of phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet to attenuate depressive-like behavior in the HPVv-Gardasil-vaccinated mice. We suggest that phosphatidylcholine supplementation may serve as a treatment for patients suffering vaccine-related neurological manifestations.


Gardasil Aluminum Depression Behavior Autoimmunity 



Human papillomavirus vaccine


Human papillomavirus


Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants




Forced swimming test


Multivariate analysis of variance


Central nervous system


Chronic fatigue syndrome





Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaye Kivity
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Maria-Teresa Arango
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Nicolás Molano-González
    • 6
  • Miri Blank
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
  1. 1.Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune DiseasesSheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael
  2. 2.Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Rheumatic Disease UnitSheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael
  4. 4.The Dr. Pinchas Borenstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program 2013Sheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael
  5. 5.Doctoral Program in Biomedical SciencesUniversidad del RosarioBogotáColombia
  6. 6.Center for Autoimmune Diseases Research (CREA)-Statistics, School of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversidad del RosarioBogotáColombia
  7. 7.Incumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kip Chair for Research of Autoimmune DiseasesTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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