Immunologic Research

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 234–252 | Cite as

Association of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TIRAP polymorphisms with disease susceptibility

  • Mamoona NoreenEmail author
  • Muhammad Arshad
Interpretive synthesis review article


Toll like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in regulation of innate as well as adaptive immunity. TLRs recognize a distinct but limited repertoire of conserved microbial products. Ligand binding to TLRs activates the signaling cascade and results in activation of multiple inflammatory genes. Variation in this immune response is under genetic control. Polymorphisms in genes associated with inflammatory pathway especially influence the outcome of diseases. TLR2 makes heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 and recognizes a wide variety of microbial ligands. In this review, we summarize studies of polymorphisms in genes encoding TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and most polymorphic adaptor protein, Mal/TIRAP, revealing their effect on susceptibility to diseases.


Polymorphism Disease Susceptibility Toll like receptors Mal/TIRAP 



We are extremely grateful to National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) and Higher Education Commission (HEC) Islamabad, Pakistan for providing us the opportunity to conduct this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB)National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)IslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

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