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Immunologic Research

, Volume 59, Issue 1–3, pp 254–265 | Cite as

Immune regulation of multiple sclerosis by CD8+ T cells

  • Sushmita Sinha
  • Farah R. Itani
  • Nitin J. Karandikar
IMMUNOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

Abstract

The role of CD8+ T cells in the process of autoimmune pathology has been both understudied and controversial. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with underlying T cell-mediated immunopathology. CD8+ T cells are the predominant T cells in human MS lesions, showing oligoclonal expansion at the site of pathology. It is still unclear whether these cells represent pathogenic immune responses or disease-regulating elements. Through studies in human MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we have discovered two novel CD8+ T cell populations that play an essential immunoregulatory role in disease: (1) MHC class Ia-restricted neuroantigen-specific “autoregulatory” CD8+ T cells and (2) glatiramer acetate (GA/Copaxone®) therapy-induced Qa-1/HLA-E-restricted GA-specific CD8+ T cells. These CD8+ Tregs suppress proliferation of pathogenic CD4+ CD25− T cells when stimulated by their cognate antigens. Similarly, CD8+ Tregs significantly suppress EAE when transferred either pre-disease induction or during peak disease. The mechanism of disease inhibition depends, at least in part, on an antigen-specific, contact-dependent process and works through modulation of CD4+ T cell responses as well as antigen-presenting cells through a combination of cytotoxicity and cytokine-mediated modulation. This review provides an overview of our understanding of CD8+ T cells in immune-mediated disease, focusing particularly on our findings regarding regulatory CD8+ T cells both in MS and in EAE. Clinical relevance of these novel CD8-regulatory populations is discussed, providing insights into a potentially intriguing, novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases.

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis (MS) CD8+ T cells Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) Immunoregulatory Glatiramer acetate (GA) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported, in part, by Grant awards (to NJK) from the NIH and National MS Society. We thank Drs. Elliot Frohman, Benjamin Greenberg and E. Torage Shivapour as well as the staff and patients of the UT Southwestern Medical Center and University of Iowa MS Clinics for their support of our studies. We also acknowledge Drs. Vladimir Badovinac and Michael Crawford for their review of this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sushmita Sinha
    • 1
  • Farah R. Itani
    • 1
  • Nitin J. Karandikar
    • 1
  1. 1.The Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of PathologyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

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