Immunologic Research

, Volume 54, Issue 1–3, pp 140–151 | Cite as

Diverse immune evasion strategies by human cytomegalovirus

  • Vanessa Noriega
  • Veronika Redmann
  • Thomas Gardner
  • Domenico TortorellaEmail author
Immunology at Mount Sinai


Members of the Herpesviridae family have the capacity to undergo both lytic and latent infection to establish a lifelong relationship with their host. Following primary infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can persist as a subclinical, recurrent infection for the lifetime of an individual. This quiescent portion of its life cycle is termed latency and is associated with periodic bouts of reactivation during times of immunosuppression, inflammation, or stress. In order to exist indefinitely and establish infection, HCMV encodes a multitude of immune modulatory mechanisms devoted to escaping the host antiviral response. HCMV has become a paradigm for studies of viral immune evasion of antigen presentation by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. By restricting the presentation of viral antigens during both productive and latent infection, HCMV limits elimination by the human immune system. This review will focus on understanding how the virus manipulates the pathways of antigen presentation in order to modulate the host response to infection.


Human cytomegalovirus MHC antigen presentation Immune evasion Latency Lytic infection Unique short Proteasome Degradation 



DT is supported by an American Heart Association Grant, DTRA contract # W81XWH-10-2-0048, and the Irma T. Hirschl Trust. VN is a post-doctoral trainee supported by the USPHS Institutional Research Training Award T32-AI078892. VR is a pre-doctoral trainee supported in part by an USPHS Institutional Research Training Award T32-AI07647 and the Kadlec Medical Center Foundation. TG is a pre-doctoral trainee supported in part by an USPHS Institutional Research Training Award T32-AI07647 and a Helmsley Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa Noriega
    • 1
  • Veronika Redmann
    • 1
  • Thomas Gardner
    • 1
  • Domenico Tortorella
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

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