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Immunologic Research

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 15–25 | Cite as

L-arginine metabolism and its impact on host immunity against Leishmania infection

  • Nanchaya Wanasen
  • Lynn SoongEmail author
Article

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease found in many countries worldwide. The causative agent of the disease, Leishmania spp., lives as an obligate intracellular parasite within mammalian hosts. Since tissue macrophages are major target cells for parasite replication, the outcome of infection depends largely on the activation status of these cells. L-arginine is a crucial amino acid required for both nitric oxide (NO)-mediated parasite killing and polyamine-mediated parasite replication. This review highlights the significance of L-arginine as a factor determining the outcomes of Leishmania infection in vitro and its influences on host immune responses in vivo. Various therapeutic approaches targeting L-arginine metabolic pathways during infections with Leishmania are also discussed.

Keywords

L-arginine transporter Arginase Leishmania Host immune response Macrophages Nitric oxide 

Abbreviations

DCs

Dendritic cells

MΦs

Macrophages

NO

Nitric oxide

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

IFN-γ

Interferon-gamma

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor

IL

Interleukin

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

ODC

Ornithine decarboxylase

CAT

Cationic amino acid transporter

LOHA

Nω-Hydroxy-L-arginine

SNAP

S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine

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© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Microbiology & Immunology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infections, Sealy Center for Vaccine DevelopmentUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infections, Sealy Center for Vaccine DevelopmentUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  3. 3.National Center for Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyKlong LuangThailand

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