Advertisement

Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 555–563 | Cite as

Evaluation of a model of bruising in pigmented skin for investigating the potential for alternate light source illumination to enhance the appearance of bruises by photography of visible and infrared light

  • Claire J. Sully
  • Kelly L. Olds
  • Neil E. I. LangloisEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of alternate light source illumination to enhance bruises in pigmented skin. Previous work was limited to simulating bruises in non-pigmented (Caucasoid type) skin by injecting blood into pigskin. In this study, it was investigated if adding a layer of melanin to the surface of the skin would simulate pigmented skin. The study included evaluating the use of a filter that transmitted infrared light (wavelength greater than 720 nm) in place of the recommended visible light filters for the alternate light sources. The results obtained using pigskin with a layer of melanin were almost the same as results using the naturally pigmented goat ear. This indicated adding a layer of melanin could be used as a model for pigmented skin in this simulation of fresh bruising. Comparing the pigskin without melanin with pigskin with melanin revealed that the optimal light source to enhance the appearance of bruising, simulated by injection of blood, changed from violet to blue-green. Using the infrared transmitting filter resulted in greater enhancement than using the alternate light sources with their recommended visible light filter. The advantage of using the infrared transmitting filter was greater with the pigskin coated with melanin and the naturally pigmented goat ears than in the non-pigmented pigskin, however, the results remain to be validated using real bruises in naturally pigmented human skin.

Keywords

Bruise Model system Pigmentation Melanin Alternate light source Infra-red 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Justin Tomalin and staff of Thomas Foods International, Lobethal South Australia; Staff of South Australian Medical Research and Investigation (SAHMRI) Pre-clinical Imaging and Research Laboratories (PIRL).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None.

Ethical approval

Forensic Science SA Research and Development Committee approved project and University of Adelaide Animal Research Ethics committee informed of use of scavenged tissue in accordance with requirements.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. 1.
    Capper C. The language of forensic medicine: the meaning of some terms employed. Med Sci Law. 2001;451:256–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Strack GB, McClane GE, Hawley D. A review of 300 attempted strangulation cases part I: criminal legal issues. J Emerg Med. 2001;21:303–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cluroe AD. Superficial soft-tissue injury. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1995;16:142–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker HC, Marsh N, Quinones I. Photography of faded or concealed bruises on human skin. J Forensic Identif. 2013;63:103–25.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lombardi M, Canter J, Patrick PA, Altman R. Is fluorescence under an alternate light source sufficient to accurately diagnose subclinical bruising? J Forensic Sci. 2015;60:444–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nijs HGT, De Groot R, Van Velthoven M, Stoel RD. Is the visibility of standardized inflicted bruises improved by using an alternate ('forensic') light source? Forensic Sci Int. 2018;294:34–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Olds K, Byard RW, Winskog C, Langlois NE. Validation of ultraviolet, infrared, and narrow band light alternate light sources for detection of bruises in a pigskin model. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2016;12:435–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Olds K, Byard RW, Winskog C, Langlois NE. Validation of alternate light sources for detection of bruises in non-embalmed and embalmed cadavers. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2017;13:28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kollias N. The physical basis of skin color and its evaluation. Clin Dermatol. 1995;13:361–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parra EJ. Human pigmentation variation: evolution, genetic basis, and implications for public health. Yearb Phys Anthropol. 2007;50:85–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kollias N, Baqer A. Spectroscopic charateristic of human melanin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 1985;85:38–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tetley C, Young S. Digital infrared and ultraviolet imaging. Part 1: infrared. J Vis Commun Med. 2007;30:162–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Payne-James JJ. Rules and scales used in measurement in the forensic setting: measured—and found wanting! Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2012;8:482–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Olds K, Byard RW, Winskog C, Langlois NE. How useful are ultraviolet, infrared, and narrow band light sources for enhancing occult bruises in cases of assault? Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2016;12:209–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mimasaka S, Oshima T, Ohtani M. Visualization of old bruises in children: use of violet light to record long-term bruises. Forensic Sci Int. 2018;282:74–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dawson JB, Barker DJ, Ellis DJ, Grassam E, Cotterill JA, Fisher GW, et al. A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin. Phys Med Biol. 1980;25:695–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kolari PJ. Penetration of unfocused laser light into the skin. Arch Dermatol Res. 1985;277:342–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lin M, Cavinato AG, Mayes DM, Smiley S, Huang Y, Al-Holy M, et al. Bruise detection in Pacific pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) by visible and short-wavelength near-infrared (SW-NIR) spectroscopy (600−1100 nm). J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:6404–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gajinov Z, Matić M, Đuran V. Optical properties of the human skin. Serbian J Dermatol Venereol. 2010;2:131–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bernstein M, Nichols G, Blair J. The use of black and white infrared photography for recording blunt force injury. Clin Anat. 2013;26:339–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Randeberg LL, Hernandez-Palacios J. Hyperspectral imaging of bruises in the SWIR spectral region. Proc SPIE. 2012;8207:82070N.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sully CJ, Olds KL, Langlois NEI. Comparison of dichroric with absorptive filters when using alternate light sources to enhance bruises. Pathology. 2019;51:S118.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berketa J, James H, Langlois N, Richards L, Pigou P. Use of a non-volatile agent to stabilize severely incinerated dental remains. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2015;11:228–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sponenberg DP, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Eng LA. Pigment types in sheep, goats, and llamas. Pigment Cell Res. 1988;1:414–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lawson Z, Nuttal D, Young S, Evans S, Maguire S, Dunstan F, et al. Which is the preferred image modality for paediatricians when assessing photographs of bruises in children? Int J Legal Med. 2011;125:825–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Trefan L, Harris C, Evans S, Nuttall D, Maguire S, Kemp AM. A comparison of four different imaging modalities - conventional, cross polarized, infra-red and ultra-violet in the assessment of childhood bruising. J Forensic Legal Med. 2018;59:30–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Harris C, Alcock A, Trefan L, Nuttall D, Evans ST, Maguire S, et al. Optimising the measurement of bruises in children across conventional and cross polarized images using segmentation analysis techniques in image J, Photoshop and circle diameter measurements. J Forensic Legal Med. 2018;54:114–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tetley C. The photography of bruises. J Vis Commun Med. 2005;28:72–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rowan P, Hill M, Gresham G, Goodall E, Moore T. The use of infrared aided photography in identification of sites of bruises after evidence of the bruise is absent to the naked eye. J Forensic Legal Med. 2010;17:293–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bashkatov AN, Genina EA, Kochubey VI, Tuchin VV. Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2005;38:2543–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kollias N, Baqer AH. Absorption mechanism of human melanin in the visible, 400-720 nm. J Invest Dermatol. 1987;89:384–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stamatas GN, Zmudzka BZ, Kollias N, Beer JZ. Non-invasive measurement of skin pigmentation in situ. Pigment Cell Res. 2004;17:618–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pollitt EN, Anderson JC, Scafide KN, Holbrook D, D'Silva G, Sheridan DJ. Alternate light source findings of common topical products. J Forensic Nurs. 2016;12:97–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire J. Sully
    • 1
  • Kelly L. Olds
    • 2
  • Neil E. I. Langlois
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Forensic Science SAAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of Notre DameFremantleAustralia
  3. 3.School of Medicine, Adelaide Health & Medical Sciences (AHMS)University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations